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Thu Apr 25, 2019, 04:37 AM

60 Years Ago Today; The Saint Lawrence Seaway opens for traffic

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Lawrence_Seaway



The Saint Lawrence Seaway (French: la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as the western end of Lake Superior. The seaway is named for the Saint Lawrence River, which flows from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean. Legally, the seaway extends from Montreal, Quebec, to Lake Erie and includes the Welland Canal.

The Saint Lawrence River portion of the seaway is not a continuous canal; rather, it consists of several stretches of navigable channels within the river, a number of locks, and canals along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River to bypass several rapids and dams. A number of the locks are managed by the St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation in Canada, and others in the United States by the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation; the two bodies together advertise the seaway as part of "Highway H2O". The section of the river from Montreal to the Atlantic is under Canadian jurisdiction, regulated by the offices of Transport Canada in the Port of Quebec.

<snip>

The seaway opened in 1959 and cost C$470 million, $336.2 million of which was paid by the Canadian government. Queen Elizabeth II and American President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally opened the seaway with a short cruise aboard the royal yacht HMY Britannia after addressing crowds in Saint-Lambert, Quebec. 22,000 workers were employed at one time or another on the project, a 2,300-mile-long superhighway for ocean freighters. Port of Milwaukee director Harry C. Brockel forecast just before the Seaway opened in 1959 that "The St. Lawrence Seaway will be the greatest single development of this century in its effects on Milwaukee's future growth and prosperity." Lester Olsen, president of the Milwaukee Association of Commerce, said, "The magnitude and potential of the St. Lawrence Seaway and the power project stir the imagination of the world."

The seaway's opening is often credited with making the Erie Canal obsolete and causing the severe economic decline of several cities along the canal in Upstate New York. By the turn of the 20th century, the Erie Canal had been largely supplanted by the railroads, which had been constructed across New York and could carry freight more quickly and cheaply. Upstate New York's economic decline was precipitated by numerous factors, only some of which had to do with the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

Under the Canada Marine Act (1998), the Canadian portions of the seaway were set up with a non-profit corporate structure; this legislation also introduced changes to federal ports.

Great Lakes and seaway shipping generates $3.4 billion in business revenue annually in the United States. In 2002, ships moved 222 million tons of cargo through the seaway. Overseas shipments, mostly of inbound steel and outbound grain, accounted for 15.4 million tons, or 6.9%, of the total cargo moved. In 2004, seaway grain exports accounted for about 3.6% of U.S. overseas grain shipments, according to the U.S. Grains Council. In a typical year, seaway steel imports account for around 6% of the U.S. annual total. The toll revenue obtained from ocean vessels is about 2530% of cargo revenue. The Port of Duluth shipped just over 2.5 million metric tons of grain, which is less than the port typically moved in the decade before the seaway opened Lake Superior to deep-draft oceangoing vessels in 1959.

International changes have affected shipping through the seaway. Europe is no longer a major grain importer; large U.S. export shipments are now going to South America, Asia, and Africa. These destinations make Gulf and West Coast ports more critical to 21st-century grain exports. Referring to the seaway project, a retired Iowa State University economics professor who specialized in transportation issues said, "It probably did make sense, at about the time it (the Seaway) was constructed and conceived, but since then everything has changed."

Certain seaway users have been concerned about the low water levels of the Great Lakes that have been recorded since 2010.

</snip>


The Eisenhower Locks are fascinating and open for visitors!

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Reply 60 Years Ago Today; The Saint Lawrence Seaway opens for traffic (Original post)
Dennis Donovan Apr 2019 OP
malaise Apr 2019 #1
KG Apr 2019 #2
GetRidOfThem Apr 2019 #3
malaise Apr 2019 #4
Chin music Apr 2019 #5

Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Thu Apr 25, 2019, 05:41 AM

1. There is so much that we take for granted that was based on science, engineering

and importantly built by governments for all.

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Response to Dennis Donovan (Original post)

Thu Apr 25, 2019, 06:29 AM

2. Environmentalists call St. Lawrence Seaway an economic bust and environmental disaster for Great Lak

https://www.mlive.com/news/muskegon/2009/03/environmentalists_blast_seaway.html

WEST MICHIGAN -- The St. Lawrence Seaway, an engineering marvel that linked the Great Lakes to the global shipping trade 50 years ago, has been an economic bust and an environmental disaster for the region, environmentalists said Monday.The Seaway is a series of seven locks and three dams in the St. Lawrence River, between Lake Ontario and Montreal. The $1 billion project, which gave ocean freighters access to the Great Lakes for the first time, was supposed to create an economic bonanza in scores of Great Lakes coastal communities, including Muskegon.


But the volume of international cargo transported on the Seaway never met initial economic projections. In recent years, ocean freighters have accounted for less than 10 percent of all cargo transported on the Great Lakes, according to government data.

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Response to KG (Reply #2)

Thu Apr 25, 2019, 06:48 AM

3. ah! as a transport and infrastructure economist...

...I have to say the most dangerous attitude planners can show is "build, and they will come!" (This is another example of many that this adage does not hold)

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Response to KG (Reply #2)

Thu Apr 25, 2019, 07:10 AM

4. The impact on the environment has been neglected for

a very long time.

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Response to KG (Reply #2)

Thu Apr 25, 2019, 07:23 AM

5. The zebra mussels and other foreign invasive species continue to ruin

the fishing economies in a lot of Great Lake States. When the carp get into the Great Lakes, boating will take a hit too. trumps tariffs can't be helping either, as far as ports in the Great Lakes and trade.

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