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Judi Lynn

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With its new embassy in Jerusalem, Bibi will ignore Paraguay's Nazi past

|Published May 27, 2018

At the opening ceremony of Paraguay’s new embassy in Jerusalem, Netanyahu spoke about common values such as democracy, tolerance, and coexistence. He failed to mention the fact that Paraguay gave asylum to Nazi war criminals.

By Eitay Mack

Taking a cue from the Trump administration, Paraguay was the third country to move its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem last week. Both Prime Minister Netanyahu and outgoing Paraguayan President Horacio Cartes spoke at the ceremony to inaugurate the new embassy, in which they both delivered speeches rife with embarrassing historical distortions.

During his speech, Cartes said that “our friendship is based on common principles such as democracy, tolerance and respect, a lack of discrimination, and peaceful coexistence.” One can only assume that in a worldwide poll asking people which countries symbolize democracy, tolerance and respect, a lack of discrimination, and peaceful coexistence, few would likely choose Israel or Paraguay.

After all, Israel has a record of 51 years of occupying the Palestinian territories, as well as discrimination against and oppressing its Palestinian citizens, while Paraguay has a record of successive military dictatorships. The country’s last dictator, General Alfredo Stroessner, ran the country as a police state for 35 years, and was responsible for the torture of tens of thousands of citizens, and disappeared hundreds of others. Women and girls who were arrested were sexually tortured and raped.

. . .

Netanyahu purposefully omitted a number of uncontroversial facts. In 1927, the first Nazi party outside of Germany was established in Paraguay. During World War II, much of the country’s elite, including future dictator Stroessner supported the Axis Powers. With the end of the war, Paraguay became one of the few countries that served as an asylum for the Nazi top brass who fled justice following the war, including those who took an active role in its genocidal machine, including Dr. Josef Mengale, who carried out brutal human experiments on Jews and the Roma people in Auschwitz, and in 1959 was granted citizenship by the Paraguayan dictatorship; Eduard Roschmann, who was one of the commanders of the Riga Ghetto; and Hans-Ulrich Rudel, a Nazi pilot personally revered by Hitler. After the war, Rudel became an arms dealer, helped harbor Nazis across Latin America, and became one of Stroessner’s close personal friends.

More:
https://972mag.com/with-its-new-embassy-in-jerusalem-bibi-will-ignore-paraguays-nazi-past/135778/

Peruvian scientists use DNA to trace origins of Inca emperors

Peruvian scientists use DNA to trace origins of Inca emperors

26 MAY 2018



AFP/File / GOH CHAI HIN
The Inca empire included the mountain-top citadel of Machu Picchu



Researchers in Peru believe they have traced the origins of the Incas -- the largest pre-Hispanic civilization in the Americas -- through the DNA of the modern-day descendants of their emperors.

From their ancient capital Cusco, the Incas controlled a vast empire called Tahuantinsuyo, which extended from the west of present-day Argentina to the south of Colombia.

They ruled for more than two hundred years before being conquered by the invading Spanish in the 16th century.

The empire included the mountain-top citadel of Machu Picchu in modern-day Peru -- now a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a major tourist attraction.

More:
https://www.afp.com/en/news/2265/peruvian-scientists-use-dna-trace-origins-inca-emperors-doc-15b5no1

Information about the Inca Trail, still not well known by majority of US Americans:

Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inca_Trail_to_Machu_Picchu



Images:

https://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=AwrEwVo5uAlbfFAAeCuLuLkF;_ylc=X1MDOTYwNTc0ODMEX3IDMgRiY2sDZWFlcjdmOWNnbDI5ZyUyNmIlM0Q0JTI2ZCUzRGZFVE9PSzFyWUgzS3VfNWJGaWk4THF3a19jX3JYc19ya1E2azM1dGQ0N2NwM1EtLSUyNnMlM0RkayUyNmklM0RXTmh2aGViRUpQQUVDbk5qMGdpcwRmcgMEZ3ByaWQDVnQyNGFrTnVSbDIzbWZXZk1ibDlxQQRtdGVzdGlkA251bGwEbl9zdWdnAzEwBG9yaWdpbgNpbWFnZXMuc2VhcmNoLnlhaG9vLmNvbQRwb3MDMARwcXN0cgMEcHFzdHJsAwRxc3RybAMxNQRxdWVyeQNpbmNhIHRyYWlsIHBlcnUEdF9zdG1wAzE1MjczNjM2NDYEdnRlc3RpZANudWxs?gprid=Vt24akNuRl23mfWfMbl9qA&pvid=v56bjDEwLjHlO2d6WQqJMADYNjUuMgAAAAAPRgOQ&fr2=sb-top-images.search.yahoo.com&p=inca+trail+peru&ei=UTF-8&iscqry=&fr=sfp#id=77&iurl=http%3A%2F%2Factiveadventures.com%2Fblog%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2015%2F01%2F10151582678556523-1500x998.jpg&action=close





Many intriguing images of what's left of the Inca Empire:

https://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=AwrEwVp.uQlbeT0ARLyJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBsZ29xY3ZzBHNlYwNzZWFyY2gEc2xrA2J1dHRvbg--;_ylc=X1MDOTYwNjI4NTcEX3IDMgRhY3RuA2NsawRiY2sDZWFlcjdmOWNnbDI5ZyUyNmIlM0Q0JTI2ZCUzRGZFVE9PSzFyWUgzS3VfNWJGaWk4THF3a19jX3JYc19ya1E2azM1dGQ0N2NwM1EtLSUyNnMlM0RkayUyNmklM0RXTmh2aGViRUpQQUVDbk5qMGdpcwRjc3JjcHZpZANvbThOY0RFd0xqSGxPMmQ2V1FxSk1BUkVOalV1TWdBQUFBQWlzR3FlBGZyA3NmcARmcjIDc2EtZ3AEZ3ByaWQDX21nc01LVGZSS0d6R0s3UTlDcFluQQRtdGVzdGlkA251bGwEbl9zdWdnAzEwBG9yaWdpbgNpbWFnZXMuc2VhcmNoLnlhaG9vLmNvbQRwb3MDMARwcXN0cgMEcHFzdHJsAwRxc3RybAMxMgRxdWVyeQNJbmNhIGVtcGlyZSAEdF9zdG1wAzE1MjczNjQ1MTkEdnRlc3RpZANudWxs?gprid=_mgsMKTfRKGzGK7Q9CpYnA&pvid=om8NcDEwLjHlO2d6WQqJMARENjUuMgAAAAAisGqe&p=Inca+empire+&fr=sfp&fr2=sb-top-images.search.yahoo.com&ei=UTF-8&n=60&x=wrt#id=240&iurl=https%3A%2F%2Flh4.googleusercontent.com%2FoB6eY-wsqBMY5vbToV8BBaLFQ4LIYZmff_eTIcQSU3mmW49i3pqkhf2Kx8aPZlQhkzIaeyk7lrz1XEl5KvMkRbJwQbCeUD1mNWELJpl588dhmS32A5f6pmr9s1piThWzRJQ&action=close

Declassified US cables link Uribe to Colombia drug cartels

Source: Associated Press

Joshua Goodman, Associated Press
Updated 1:04 pm, Saturday, May 26, 2018



Photo: Fernando Vergara, AP
Colombia's former President Alvaro Uribe stands between Ivan Duque, presidential candidate for Democratic Center party, right, and his running mate Martha Lucia Ramirez during a campaign rally in Bogota, Colombia, Sunday, May 20, 2018. Colombians will go to the polls on May 27 for a first round presidential election.


BOGOTA, Colombia (AP) — As Alvaro Uribe, Colombia's most powerful politician, was making his rise to the presidency more than two decades ago, U.S. officials were repeatedly told that the up-and-coming politician had ties to the nation's drug cartels, according to newly declassified State Department cables.

The cables were obtained and released Friday by the National Security Archive, a non-profit group, as Uribe's handpicked candidate, Ivan Duque, is the frontrunner in polls to win Sunday's presidential election.

They describe meetings between 1992 and 1995 between American officials and Uribe as well as other Colombian politicians in his then Liberal Party.

In one 1993 cable, then Senator Luis Velez told a U.S. Embassy political officer that Uribe was a cousin of the Ochoa crime family that partnered with Escobar and had financed his political campaigns.

Read more: https://www.chron.com/news/crime/article/Declassified-US-cables-link-Uribe-to-Colombia-12945699.php





George W. Bush awarding the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Álvaro Uribe





Spend some time doing research. The information goes back for many years,

involves vicious violence against so many people you'd start realizing perhaps you should have learned about this earlier.

No time like the present.

Find out about what you don't know, rather than claiming the new (to you) information is bogus.

Jump right in there, start your research, just as anyone looking for the truth MUST. Everyone must bother to use his/her own time and energy to look for what has happened already so many, many times, or remain innocent of all helpful knowledge, taking potshots at subjects you really don't understand.

Oh, also, while you're at it, another one of the companies is Alabama-based Drummond Coal, and you will find similar events happened there, to similar innocent people who worked for those monsters who earlier created an evil history in their US businesses before they opened their devastating business in Colombia. I would hope you would be conscientious enough to research them, too:

Bloodstained coal from Colombia
Massacres, targeted killings, expulsions: Raw material companies in Colombia are believed to have taken part in crimes for years. Even German utilities have received coal supplies from them.

It was around 2 a.m. on February 19, 2002, when about 30 masked paramilitaries appeared in the village, recalls Marina Barbosa. "They stopped at our house and knocked on the door, but I did not let them in. 'Hurry up' or we will throw a grenade!' the men shouted. Later they entered the house and screamed: "You support the guerrilla fighters!"

Marina and her two children, Rafael Arturo and Maira Marleny were forced to lie on the floor while the men searched and destroyed everything in the house. They took away everything of value.

"After they had searched the house, the paramilitaries accused my husband to be a member of the trade union, which was not true. He worked for Drummond and drove trucks. But at the end they dragged him outside and shot him in front our children."

Numerous victims

Marina Barbosa is just one of the many victims of human rights violations by paramilitaries in the coal region Cesar in northeastern Colombia. In its recently published report "The Dark Side of Coal," the Netherlands-based NGO Pax for Peace raised serious allegations against the mine operator Prodeco, a subsidiary of the Swiss Glencore Group and the American family-run firm Drummond.

More:
http://www.dw.com/en/bloodstained-coal-from-colombia/a-17771092?maca=en-rss-en-bus-2091-rdf

Colombia's Elections: Assassinations, presidential death squads, fraud and a fragile peace process u


Joe Cederwall Friday, 25 May 2018, 1:46 pm
Article: Joseph Cederwall

Next week Colombia, goes to the polls in one of the most pivotal and closely fought elections in decades. This election will now take place under the watch of EU monitors as an escalating fraud scandal develops surrounding the recent congressional elections. The two frontrunners are starkly contrasted, as are the potential outcomes for Colombia and the entire Latin American region. The election has been notable for the massive popularity of (and an assassination attempt on) leftist anti-establishment and charismatic anti-corruption candidate Gustavo Petro. It has also seen the opening of a Supreme Court murder investigation against former hard-right President Álvaro Uribe Vélez over his alleged role in war crimes committed by paramilitary death squads. It has seen major revelations over corruption and the extent of the state and military involvement in atrocities in Colombia’s long running civil war and in Cocaine trafficking. Meanwhile, the fragile year-old peace process is on the verge of collapse. However, despite all this, the right-wing candidate Ivan Duque, close ally and ordained political heir of Uribe, leads in the polls one week out. The results of a victory for Duque could be catastrophic, not only for the continued progress of this nation and the peace process, but for the wider geopolitical stability of Latin America.

Why Colombia’s Elections Matter

With 49 million people, Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. However, due to its central geographical position, and central role in the ‘Bolivarian’ Latin American independence movement, Colombia has always held a historical leadership role in the region. The 30 year long civil war that claimed at least 220,000 lives, displaced nearly six million people, and resulted in 27,000 kidnappings and 25,000 disappearances has slowly started to wind down. This is largely due to the more stable rule and more amenable attitude towards the legitimate calls for justice by the communist insurgency of FARC since Uribe left office. The historic peace accord between the FARC guerillas and the government in 2016 was brokered by centre-right president (since 2010) and Nobel Peace Prize recipient Juan Manuel Santos. This deal promised great things for stability and peace in the region and the war was significantly de-escalated as a result. Business confidence was finally growing again in Colombia, and the nation was on track to becoming a regional powerhouse once again.

A Fragile Peace

However, with the increasing influence of the USA over the years and decades of neoliberal rule, the prosperity of Colombia has not reached far outside the wealthy upper echelons, mostly in the main cities of Bogota and Medellin. Furthermore, the Peace process is now near to falling apart. Santos’ government has been accused of failing to deliver on its end of the bargain to rejuvenate rural areas with upgrades to infrastructure, health, education and agriculture and create real transitional opportunities for ex-combatants.

In the first year of the process, the government executed less than 20% of the agreements made with the guerrillas and there have been allegations of corruption and missing funds within the project. The media and right-wing politicians, meanwhile have seized on this faltering of the peace process to fuel the fire of opposition to the peace process and garner votes for their more hard-line approach towards FARC. The reality is, that Colombia’s institutions and state was never up to the undertaking of delivering this ambitious programme. However, ironically, this failure was also likely created or at least exacerbated by these same right-wing political and media players’ opposition to any real steps to enable more investment in the regions and in transitional initiatives.

More:
http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL1805/S00168/colombias-elections-assassinations-presidential-death-squads-fraud-and-a-fragile-peace-process-under-threat.htm

Colombia's election could mark the start of a resurgent left

MAY 24, 2018 / 10:59 AM / A DAY AGO

Julia Symmes Cobb, Helen Murphy
8 MIN READ

BOGOTA (Reuters) - Left-wing presidential candidate Gustavo Petro had a simple but radical proposal for his audience in the small industrial town of Yumbo in western Colombia.

What if his government bought a huge stretch of land owned by billionaire sugar baron Carlos Ardila Lulle close to the nearby city of Cali?

“It would be nice if he decided, once we are in power, to sell his Incauca farm to the government so we can give it to peasant farmers,” said Petro, a former rebel with the M19 urban guerrilla group, speaking during a rally on April 26.

The crowd roared approval for an idea that would not have sounded out of place in the platform of several leftist Latin American leaders in recent years but that seemed shocking from a mainstream candidate in Colombia.

More:
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-election-left-analysis/colombias-election-could-mark-the-start-of-a-resurgent-left-idUSKCN1IP2TY?feedType=RSS&feedName=worldNews&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Reuters%2FworldNews+%28Reuters+World+News%29&&rpc=401

Colombia re-arrests Pablo Escobar's hitman for extortion


Updated 1:24 pm, Friday, May 25, 2018

BOGOTA, Colombia (AP) — Colombian police have re-arrested a former hit man for the late drug lord Pablo Escobar as part of an investigation into extortion.

The chief prosecutor's office said Friday that Jhon Jairo Velasquez was arrested in Medellin. It has yet to provide details about the investigation.

Velasquez, known by his nickname Popeye, was paroled in 2014 after confessing to hundreds of murders and spending 22 years in jail for plotting the assassination of a former Colombian presidential candidate.

He has since gained notoriety as a YouTube star who espouses conservative political views and hate-filled diatribes against leftist rebels and Venezuela's socialist government. Last week he took aim at Colombia's leftist presidential candidate Gustavo Petro, warning that his "rifle will speak for me."

More:
https://www.chron.com/news/crime/article/Colombia-re-arrests-Pablo-Escobar-s-hitman-for-12944146.php




Jhon Jairo Velasquez






Biography of Pablo Escobar
Colombia's Drug Kingpin

by Christopher Minster
Updated April 17, 2018

Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria was a Colombian drug lord and leader of one of the most powerful criminal organizations ever assembled. During the height of his power in the 1980s, he controlled a vast empire of drugs and murder that covered the globe. He made billions of dollars, ordered the murder of hundreds, if not thousands of people, and ruled over a personal empire of mansions, airplanes, a private zoo and even his own army of soldiers and hardened criminals.

. . .

The Height of Power

By the mid-1980s, Pablo Escobar was one of the most powerful men in the world. Forbes magazine listed him as the seventh-richest man in the world. His empire included an army of soldiers and criminals, a private zoo, mansions, and apartments all over Colombia, private airstrips and planes for drug transport and personal wealth reported to be in the neighborhood of $24 billion. He could order the murder of anyone, anywhere, anytime.

More:
https://www.thoughtco.com/biography-of-pablo-escobar-2136126

Colombia's Elections: Assassinations, presidential death squads, fraud and a fragile peace process u

Colombia’s Elections: Assassinations, presidential death squads, fraud and a fragile peace process under threat
Joe Cederwall Friday, 25 May 2018, 1:46 pm
Article: Joseph Cederwall

Next week Colombia, goes to the polls in one of the most pivotal and closely fought elections in decades. This election will now take place under the watch of EU monitors as an escalating fraud scandal develops surrounding the recent congressional elections. The two frontrunners are starkly contrasted, as are the potential outcomes for Colombia and the entire Latin American region. The election has been notable for the massive popularity of (and an assassination attempt on) leftist anti-establishment and charismatic anti-corruption candidate Gustavo Petro. It has also seen the opening of a Supreme Court murder investigation against former hard-right President Álvaro Uribe Vélez over his alleged role in war crimes committed by paramilitary death squads. It has seen major revelations over corruption and the extent of the state and military involvement in atrocities in Colombia’s long running civil war and in Cocaine trafficking. Meanwhile, the fragile year-old peace process is on the verge of collapse. However, despite all this, the right-wing candidate Ivan Duque, close ally and ordained political heir of Uribe, leads in the polls one week out. The results of a victory for Duque could be catastrophic, not only for the continued progress of this nation and the peace process, but for the wider geopolitical stability of Latin America.

Why Colombia’s Elections Matter

With 49 million people, Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. However, due to its central geographical position, and central role in the ‘Bolivarian’ Latin American independence movement, Colombia has always held a historical leadership role in the region. The 30 year long civil war that claimed at least 220,000 lives, displaced nearly six million people, and resulted in 27,000 kidnappings and 25,000 disappearances has slowly started to wind down. This is largely due to the more stable rule and more amenable attitude towards the legitimate calls for justice by the communist insurgency of FARC since Uribe left office. The historic peace accord between the FARC guerillas and the government in 2016 was brokered by centre-right president (since 2010) and Nobel Peace Prize recipient Juan Manuel Santos. This deal promised great things for stability and peace in the region and the war was significantly de-escalated as a result. Business confidence was finally growing again in Colombia, and the nation was on track to becoming a regional powerhouse once again.

A Fragile Peace

However, with the increasing influence of the USA over the years and decades of neoliberal rule, the prosperity of Colombia has not reached far outside the wealthy upper echelons, mostly in the main cities of Bogota and Medellin. Furthermore, the Peace process is now near to falling apart. Santos’ government has been accused of failing to deliver on its end of the bargain to rejuvenate rural areas with upgrades to infrastructure, health, education and agriculture and create real transitional opportunities for ex-combatants.

In the first year of the process, the government executed less than 20% of the agreements made with the guerrillas and there have been allegations of corruption and missing funds within the project. The media and right-wing politicians, meanwhile have seized on this faltering of the peace process to fuel the fire of opposition to the peace process and garner votes for their more hard-line approach towards FARC. The reality is, that Colombia’s institutions and state was never up to the undertaking of delivering this ambitious programme. However, ironically, this failure was also likely created or at least exacerbated by these same right-wing political and media players’ opposition to any real steps to enable more investment in the regions and in transitional initiatives.

More:
http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL1805/S00168/colombias-elections-assassinations-presidential-death-squads-fraud-and-a-fragile-peace-process-under-threat.htm

Sounds a lot like Operation Northwoods to me. Get the public fired up, then overthrow Cuba

with the full support of the most simple minded among us who can't be bothered to think things through, and ask questions.

Operation Northwoods: US False Flag Attacks to Invade Cuba in 1962
Updated on July 31, 2017

David Hunt

Operation Northwoods

In March 1962 the US Joint Chiefs of Staff submitted preliminary plans to the US Secretary of Defense that included attacking an American military base and launching terrorist attacks in American cities. These and other incidents, under the code name Operation Northwoods, were “False Flag” operations, that is, incidents the US would stage in such a way that blame would fall on Castro's Cuba. In response to Cuba's “aggression”, the United States would then be justified in a massive invasion of Cuba, ridding the Western Hemisphere of a Communist outpost 90 miles off the coast of Florida.



Under the Umbrella of the Cuban Project
After the CIA-supported Bay of Pigs Invasion failed miserably in April 1961, the US started to develop the Cuban Project, an umbrella of covert operations to “help Cuba overthrow the Communist regime” by October 1962. Organized by President Kennedy's brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy and the CIA, the Cuban Project was also known as Operation Mongoose. Operation Northwoods was one of 33 plans that were considered under Operation Mongoose; other plans included tainting Fidel Castro's clothes with thallium salts so his beard would fall out and spraying hallucinogens in the broadcast studio before Castro gave a televised speech.

Operation Northwoods contained nine “pretexts to justify US military intervention in Cuba”.

1. Provoke a Cuban military response
The best outcome would be to harass or trick the Cubans into believing an attack was imminent so they actually attacked US forces first.

2. Stage a Cuban Attack on Guantanamo
Friendly uniformed Cubans could be used to attack the US Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in southeastern Cuba, including actually firing mortars into the base and damaging some infrastructure. Meanwhile, aircraft on the ground inside the base could be sabotaged and burned and a ship sunk in the harbor entrance. “Attacking” Cubans would be captured and mock funerals held for their American victims. The US would respond by attacking Communist Cuban artillery and mortar emplacements near Guantanamo to be followed by large scale military operations.

More:
https://owlcation.com/humanities/Operation-Northwoods-US-False-Flag-Attacks-to-Invade-Cuba-in-1962

~ ~ ~

U.S. Military Wanted to Provoke War With Cuba
By DAVID RUPPE N E W Y O R K, May 1, 2001

In the early 1960s, America's top military leaders reportedly drafted plans to kill innocent people and commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities to create public support for a war against Cuba.

America's top military brass even contemplated causing U.S. military casualties, writing: "We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba," and, "casualty lists in U.S. newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation."

The plans were developed as ways to trick the American public and the international community into supporting a war to oust Cuba's then new leader, communist Fidel Castro.

America's top military brass even contemplated causing U.S. military casualties, writing: "We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba," and, "casualty lists in U.S. newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation."


More:
https://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=92662&page=1

~ ~ ~

Operation Northwoods: When the US Joint Chiefs of Staff slid into insanity
BY DOUG POPPA · APRIL 21, 2017 ·

Operation Northwoods: When the US Joint Chiefs of Staff slid into insanity
BY DOUG POPPA · APRIL 21, 2017 · 0 COMMENTS
·


Fifty-five years ago, a top-secret plan was proposed by the United States government to secure support for military intervention against Cuba. A plan that included acts of terrorism, sabotage, murder, treason and other crimes, many of which were proposed to occur on American soil.

I have read plenty of declassified government documents over the years and after reading many of them I found myself screaming out loud, WTF. Operation Northwoods I must tell you, tops them all.

Documents referencing Operation Northwoods surfaced about 20 year ago after being hidden from the American public for almost 40 years.

It is the definitive blueprint for false flag operations. A false flag is a covert operation that is designed to deceive in a way that the activities appear as though they are being carried out by a group or nation other than those who actually planned and executed them.


More:
http://baltimorepostexaminer.com/operation-northwoods-us-joint-chiefs-staff-slid-insanity/2017/04/21

~ ~ ~

If you haven't heard of "Operation Mongoose" already, you will perhaps find that material bizarre, and perplexing, and, apparently standard in ways most people have never known!

Operation Mongoose

The Cuban Project, also known as Operation Mongoose, was a covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that was commissioned in March 1960 during the final year of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration. On November 30, 1961, covert operations against Fidel Castro's government in Cuba were officially authorized by President Kennedy and after being given the name Operation Mongoose at a prior White House meeting on November 4, 1961. The operation was led by United States Air Force General Edward Lansdale and went into effect after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion.

Operation Mongoose was a secret program against Cuba aimed at removing the Communists from power, which was a prime focus of the Kennedy administration.[1] A document from the United States Department of State confirms that the project aimed to "help Cuba overthrow the Communist regime", including its leader Fidel Castro, and it aimed "for a revolt which can take place in Cuba by October 1962". US policymakers also wanted to see "a new government with which the United States can live in peace".[2]

Origins
In 1959, the CIA predicted that Castro would have a difficult time hanging on to the government. The major initial fear was that Castro would demand that a much higher rent be paid by the U.S. for possession of Guantanamo Bay.[3] Early on there was a wait and see approach to judge if Castro was a communist. He was not deemed to be one initially, but his brother Raul was.[4] General C. P. Cabell noted in November 1959 that while Castro was not a communist he allowed free opportunity to the communist party in Cuba to grow and spread its message. Nonetheless, by December plans were already being tossed around between high ranking US Foreign Policy Officials that called for overthrowing the Castro government.[5] An official report from the CIA states that, by March 1960, the United States had already decided that Fidel Castro must be displaced. Due to the United States' fear of repercussions from the United Nations, the plan was kept at the highest level of secrecy, and as thus, "plausible deniability" was made a key focal point in American clandestine service policy.[6]

Formal Authorization for Action

The government formally authorized the operation on March 17, 1960 when President Eisenhower signed off on a CIA paper entitled “A Program of Covert Action Against the Castro Regime.”[7] A declassified report by the Inspector General Lyman Kirkpatrick details the history of the operation, and states that the presidential order gave the agency authorization to create an organization of exiled Cubans to manage opposition programs, begin a “propaganda offensive” to draw support for the movement, create an intelligence gathering network inside Cuba, and to “develop a paramilitary force to be introduced into Cuba to organize, train and lead resistance groups against the Castro regime.[7] The CIA’s budget estimation for this covert operation was approximately $4.4 million.[7] The paper signed by Eisenhower was also the sole report issued by the government throughout the entire project. This highlights the U.S. Government’s secrecy in carrying out the operation as well as its policy of plausible deniability. This program required the agency to work around the clock and collect a large amount of detail-specific information, as well as to cooperate with other agencies.[7] To secure the needed financial backing, the “Bender Group” was developed as an organization that would provide American businessmen a secret avenue through which to trade with Cuban groups.[7] On May 11, 1960, the Bender Group came to an agreement with group called Frente Revolucionario Democratico (FRD).[7] Propaganda activities included using print and radio mediums to broadcast anti-Castro messages. These programs were launched all over Latin America.[7] Large amounts of real estate were purchased by the agency for use in this operation. A base of operations was established in Miami on May 25, by using a “New York career and development firm” and “a Department of Defense contract” as covers.[7] A communications station was also established on June 15 by using an Army operation as a cover.[7] The agency also obtained safe houses all over Miami for different “operational purposes.”[7] The CIA also acquired properties in different US cities and abroad for various reasons.


More:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Project

~ ~ ~

JFK Documents Highlight Talks On Clandestine Anti-Cuba Ops
October 27, 20176:25 AM ET

It was the late summer of 1962.

The previous year, the U.S. invasion of the Bay of Pigs, meant to topple the communist regime of Fidel Castro, had been an embarrassing failure.

. . .

Here are some of the possible operations against Cuba. Some are only alluded to, others given a bit more detail. It is not known which, if any, were actually put into practice:

  • An apparent plan to use balloons to drop propaganda leaflets over Cuba: "After considerable discussion, it was agreed that details should be presented to the Group, to include the content of the leaflets which would be dropped, and specifics as to the method and place of launching, the technical details of the release of leaflets, etc., etc."

  • Possible disruption of Cuban radio and TV broadcasts: "Mr. Murrow explained the far-reaching reactions that the Cubans could mount against U.S. radio stations, and said that he felt on balance it would not be profitable to provoke this kind of electronic warfare."


  • More:
    https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/10/27/560352638/jfk-documents-highlight-talks-on-clandestine-anti-cuba-ops




    Edward Lansdale, the psy-ops specialist who was active in
    the Phillipines prior to working on Cuba projects, and later
    was involved in the Viet Nam War.

    Any reading about him will be very unpleasantly enlightening.





    Lansdale, middle, with CIA head, Allen Dulles

    PSYWAR in the Philippines | ASWANG of the CIA

    “To the superstitious, the Huk battleground was a haunted place filled with ghosts and eerie creatures.”

    ~Air Force Brigadier General Edward G. Lansdale

    The Hukbalahap Rebellion was a rebellion staged by former Hukbalahap or Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon (Anti-Japanese Army) soldiers against the Philippine government. It started during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in 1942 and continued during the presidency of Manuel Roxas, and ended in 1954 under the presidency of Ramon Magsaysay. Part of the reason this rebellion was able to be ended was the involvement of a famous clandestine commander, Air Force Brigadier General Edward G. Lansdale. A firm believer in the efficacy of “psychological operations” (or PSYOP, for short — the military’s term for propaganda), Lansdale was a pioneering psywarrior.

    Lansdale believed that to successfully implement psychological warfare, you needed a firm understanding of the socio-cultural beliefs and myths of the target. He believed that an exploitation of these mores and beliefs would result in a successfull campaign. Nowhere did Lansdale implement these tactics more ruthlessly than in the Philippines, where he served as the CIA’s chief operative during the early 1950s counterinsurgency campaign against the country’s Huk rebels.

    I’ve heard stories about how Lansdale created “aswang armies”, slaughtered villagers and picked off Huk rebels through vicious attacks. You know how it goes, people love telling stories, and why not add your own spin? I decided to read Lansdale’s memoir, In the Midst of Wars: An American’s Mission to Southeast Asia, and hear his own account of these events.

    Lansdale recalls, “A combat psywar squad was brought in. It planted stories among town residents of an asuang living on the hill where the Huks were based. Two nights later, after giving the stories time to make their way up to the hill camp, the psywar squad set up an ambush along the trail used by the Huks. When a Huk patrol came along the trail, the ambushers silently snatched the last man of the patrol, their move unseen in the dark night. They punctured his neck with two holes, vampire-fashion, held the body up by the heels, drained it of blood, and put the corpse back on the trail. When the Huks returned to look for the missing man and found their bloodless comrade, every member of the patrol believed that the asuang had got him and that one of them would be next if they remained on that hill. When daylight came, the whole Huk squadron moved out of the vicinity.”


    https://www.aswangproject.com/psywar-in-the-philippines-aswang-of-the-cia/

    ~ ~ ~

    Ed Lansdale’s Black Warfare in 1950s Vietnam

    BY MARC D. BERNSTEIN
    2/16/2010



    Colonel Edward Lansdale, chief of the CIA's Saigon Military Mission, meets with Ngo Dinh Diem
    after the CIA entered Vietnam in 1954 to help the pro-Western Vietnamese wage
    political-psychological warfare.
    (Douglas Pike Photo Collection, The Vietnam Archive, Texas Tech Univ.)

    He was, for some, the genius cowboy who sometimes skirts the rules to achieve the just goals of Western democracy; for others, the embodiment of an arrogant foreign policy gone dangerously wrong.


    A bit miffed at his last-minute orders to proceed directly from the Philippines to Vietnam, with no time to return home to Washington to prepare for his new covert mission or visit his family, Colonel Edward Lansdale flew into Saigon in the rattling bucket seat of an amphibian aircraft from the 31st Air-Sea Rescue Squadron. It was the first available flight out of Clark Air Force Base to Saigon, and the crewmen agreed to take him if he didn’t mind the extra flight time while they performed their patrol over the South China Sea. It was June 1, 1954, and as he sipped coffee from a paper cup he thought about what lay ahead. He’d heard about the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu and knew that the French and Viet Minh were working out a peace settlement in Geneva, but beyond that, his knowledge about the country was slim.

    It was at a meeting convened in the Pentagon six months earlier to discuss Vietnam that Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had turned to Lansdale and told him, “We’re going to send you over there,” to which Lansdale replied, “Not to help the French!” No, he was reassured, he would help the Vietnamese put down the Communist-dominated Viet Minh in Indochina. Allen Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency, joined with his brother in backing Lansdale to serve as the founder and chief of the CIA’s Saigon Military Mission (SSM), which was to quietly enter Vietnam and help the pro-Western Vietnamese wage political-psychological warfare.

    The CIA was willing to give Lansdale, a San Francisco advertising executive before World War II, great latitude based on his success in black operations in the Philippines from 1950-53. A U.S. Army officer who transferred his commission to the Air Force after the war, he had helped the Philippine army put down the Hukbalahap (Huk) rebellion. Philippine Communists formed the guerrilla group originally to fight the Japanese in World War II. After Huk efforts to participate in the postwar government were rebuffed and a reportedly fraudulent election took place in 1949, the Huks began their guerrilla war to overthrow the U.S.-backed government. In waging war against the Huks, Lansdale wielded a wide array of counterinsurgency and psywar tools, some playing upon Filipino superstitions. One such successful unconventional tactic exploited villagers’ belief in vampires, another on ghosts of dead Huks. In Lansdale’s “Eye of God” campaign, suspected guerrillas living in a village were targets of psywar teams that surreptitiously painted a menacing eye on a wall facing the suspect’s hut. Although most notorious for these types of psywar operations, it was primarily Lansdale’s application of advertising principles and media manipulation that led to the honest election of Ramon Magsaysay as president in 1953.

    But Vietnam was a different country with much different problems.


    More:
    http://www.historynet.com/ed-lansdales-black-warfare-in-1950s-vietnam.htm

    Militant Cuban exile Luis Posada Carriles has died

    Source: Associated Press

    Gisela Salomon, Associated Press
    Updated 9:27 am, Wednesday, May 23, 2018

    MIAMI (AP) -- Former CIA operative and militant Cuban exile Luis Posada Carriles, who was accused of organizing a string of 1997 Havana hotel bombings and a 1976 Cuban airline bombing that killed 73 people, has died. He was 90.

    Posada, who had been diagnosed with throat cancer about five years ago, died Wednesday at a care home for elderly veterans in Broward Country, north of Miami, according to Arturo Hernandez, a lawyer for the hardline exile.

    . . .

    Early on, Posada's CIA handlers described him as reliable and even a reasonable voice among the exiles, whom he was willing to inform on, according to declassified agency documents released at the request of the National Security Archives.

    "A15 is not a typical kind of 'boom and bang' individual," CIA handler Grover Lythcott wrote in 1966, using a code name for Posada. "He is acutely aware of the international implications of ill-planned or overly enthusiastic activities against Cuba."




    Read more: https://www.chron.com/news/world/article/Militant-Cuban-exile-Luis-Posada-Carriles-has-died-12936827.php














    Cuban relatives of murdered Cubana
    airline bombing victims.



    Enjoying his celebrity in Miami among Cuban "exiles"



    Standing with his Cubana bombing associate,
    Orlando Bosch
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