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kristopher

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Member since: Fri Dec 19, 2003, 02:20 AM
Number of posts: 29,798

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Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide

Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide
Mark D. Zobacka,1 and Steven M. Gorelickb


Departments of aGeophysics and Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305
Edited by Pamela A. Matson, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and approved May 4, 2012 (received for review March 27, 2012)

Abstract

Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO2 emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO2 [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185–5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO2 into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO2 repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions.


http://www.pnas.org/content/109/26/10164

LA Times coverage:
Underground carbon dioxide storage likely would cause earthquakes


The notion of mitigating harmful carbon dioxide emissions by storing the gas underground is not practical because the process is likely to cause earthquakes that would release the gas anyway, according to a commentary published Monday in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. While the scientists do not expect that the approach would cause any large and dangerous seismic activity, they say it is likely that the earthquakes would be severe enough to jeopardize the ability to store the gas underground over the long term.

Some scientists and government officials have proposed dealing with human-generated carbon emissions with a process called “carbon capture and storage,” or CCS, in which the gas is separated from the emissions of a coal-burning power plant, captured, and then injected underground at high pressure.

The problem is that...


http://www.latimes.com/news/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-carbon-storage-may-cause-earthquakes-20120618,0,5073255.story

Companies To Develop 34-Meter (110 ft) Solar Module On A Roofing Membrane

Companies To Develop 34-Meter Solar Module On A Roofing Membrane
Friday 06 July 2012

ISOVOLTAIC, Isosport, Renolit, Konarka AIT and Hymmen are developing a 34-meter-long flexible solar module on a roofing membrane. The companies say these modules have potential to produce more cost-effective power due to reduced production and installation costs.

Flexible solar modules that combine the roofing membrane and solar module in one structural element can be handled like conventional roofing membranes. A roll-to-roll process can be used to manufacture the modules, which employ flexible solar cells.

Upon completion ...


http://solarindustrymag.com/e107_plugins/content/content.php?content.10673

Ocean Acidification Is Climate Change's 'Equally Evil Twin,' NOAA Chief Says

Ocean Acidification Is Climate Change's 'Equally Evil Twin,' NOAA Chief Says
AP | Posted: 07/09/2012 12:51 am Updated: 07/09/2012 12:51 pm

SYDNEY (AP) — Oceans' rising acid levels have emerged as one of the biggest threats to coral reefs, acting as the "osteoporosis of the sea" and threatening everything from food security to tourism to livelihoods, the head of a U.S. scientific agency said Monday.

The speed by which the oceans' acid levels has risen caught scientists off-guard, with the problem now considered to be climate change's "equally evil twin," National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration chief Jane Lubchenco told The Associated Press.

"We've got sort of the perfect storm of stressors from multiple places really hammering reefs around the world," said Lubchenco, who was in Australia to speak at the International Coral Reef Symposium in the northeast city of Cairns, near the Great Barrier Reef. "It's a very serious situation."

Oceans absorb excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, increasing sea acidity. Scientists are worried about how that increase will affect sea life, particularly reefs, as higher acid levels make it tough for coral skeletons to form. Lubchenco likened ocean acidification to osteoporosis — a bone-thinning disease — because researchers are concerned it will lead to the deterioration of reefs.

Scientists initially assumed that the carbon dioxide absorbed by the water would be sufficiently diluted ...


http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/09/ocean-acidification-reefs-climate-change_n_1658081.html?ref=topbar

Did you know that nuke regulators are not ALLOWED to examine nuke plant accident guidelines?

This piece provides great insight into the nature of the problems that cause the only safety conscious Nuclear Regulatory Commissioner to lose his job.

White House Moves Swiftly To Replace NRC’s Jaczko

...In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns, Jaczko found himself at odds with the other four and the staff over the assessment of safety margins at Mark 1 boiling water reactors – including Hope Creek and Oyster Creek in New Jersey – which are the same as those destroyed due to loss of power and an inability to operate their safety systems in the aftermath of the Japanese earthquake and tsunami. While all such plants are required to have Severe Accident Management Guidelines – written plans as to what to do to protect the public in the event of a reactor meltdown – they had not been evaluated to determine if they actually worked.

“I used to teach students – who were becoming NRC reactor inspectors – about the SAM Guidelines,” said David Lochbaum, nuclear safety engineer at UCS who taught at the NRC in 2009. “The first thing we taught our students was you are not allowed to look at these guidelines at your plant sites. You can’t find out if they are good, bad, or indifferent.

“You have procedures to protect the public and the NRC can’t look at them. What kind of game is this? It seems that in severe accidents you don’t have to provide training, or have the right equipment. All you have to do is have written procedures somewhere and then wave a magic wand and everything will be fine.”

In the wake of the March 11 disaster in Japan the NRC ordered special inspections of the SAMG documents in all 104 of the nation’s reactors. They found at Indian Point, near New York City, and others, that while plants may have been designed to meet earthquake standards, the necessary systems to protect the reactor – such as fire equipment or the water mains coming in from the municipality – were not seismically hardened and, therefore, could be useless in a real emergency.

Jaczko’s last showdown...


http://spoonsenergymatters.wordpress.com/

Data are or data is?

Do you know someone who has an agendum about what verb should be used with data?

Please be sure you skim the article before replying...

Data are or data is?
Is it singular or plural? It's a word we use every day here on the Datablog - but are we getting it completely wrong?

How do you say "data"?

I only ask because it's a contentious issue. Along with split infinitives, getting this one wrong offends and delights in equal measure. And, as we write about data every day, we're either getting it very wrong or very right.

The Wall Street Journal has...


http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/jul/16/data-plural-singular

Up in smoke: how efficient is electricity produced in the UK?

Up in smoke: how efficient is electricity produced in the UK?
Huge amounts of energy are wasted every day in our gas, coal and nuclear power stations.

Over half of the energy in gas and around two thirds of the energy in nuclear and coal used to produce electricity is lost as waste heat.

Information is Beautiful has created a graphic for Friends of the Earth that illustrates just how much energy is lost in production and compares it to renewables sources, which lose less than 1%.

It makes particularly interesting reading when considered alongside Good Energy's (one of our partners on the Clean British Energy campaign) recent graphic showing where our energy comes from.

This graphic was produced...


http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/jul/06/energy-green-politics#

Energy cooperatives are booming in Germany

Energy cooperatives are booming in Germany

The move away from conventional sources of energy in Germany is driven primarily by citizens. An increasing number of people work together by forming cooperatives to build wind farms and solar plants.

Cooperatives have experienced a revival in Germany. In 2006, eight new energy cooperatives were founded. In 2011 alone, this number was 167. And the German Cooperative and Raiffeisen Confederation expects the figure to be even higher for 2012.

This kind of growth is vital if Germany wants to phase out its nuclear energy dependency by 2022. By promoting energy policy at the local level, communities all over Germany are profiting from renewable energy sources and the power of cooperatives.

A typical example of this growth is seen in the Horb Ecumenical Energy Cooperative in Stuttgart, which has implemented several solar power plants. Bernard Bok was a driving force in this task: before his retirement he was on the board of the local cooperative Volksbank, so he was interested in helping the cooperative.

For him there was no question, the development ...


http://www.dw.de/dw/article/0,,16076317,00.html

World Atomic Output Falls by Record in Fukushima’s Aftermath

World Atomic Output Falls by Record in Fukushima’s Aftermath
By Kari Lundgren on July 06, 2012

World nuclear power production dropped by a record 4.3 percent last year as the global financial crisis and the Fukushima disaster in Japan prompted plant shutdowns and slowed construction of new sites.

Reactors generated 2,518 terawatt-hours of electricity, down from 2,630 terawatt-hours in 2010, according to the World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2012 published today. Atomic power accounted for 11 percent of all electricity generation.

The meltdown of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (9501)’s Fukushima Dai- Ichi plant in March last year drove countries including Germany, Switzerland and Taiwan to announce their withdrawal from nuclear power. Global output was further restricted as nations put new- build plans on hold amid safety concern and economic stagnation, forcing utilities to study extending the lives of current sites.

“The situation is much worse for the industry than after Chernobyl,” said Mycle Schneider, co-author of the report, referring to the 1986 accident in Ukraine. “New projects have a very dull future, but it will put enormous pressure on extending lifetimes and that raises obvious safety issues.”

Seven ...


http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-07-06/world-atomic-power-output-falls-by-record-in-fukushima-aftermath

Inexpensive point source, on-demand hot water heaters

When I lived in Japan I became accustomed to the type of water heater shown below. They were everywhere and were installed in homes exactly as you see them shown - no special venting was employed. The smaller ones ($100-150) that heat up to 1.5 GPM are good for lavatory or kitchen use, but really are not able to put out enough heated water for a shower. The larger ones ($180-300) will, however, do the job pretty well even on cold days.

Important things to consider:
1) SAFETY Traditional Japanese homes are very poorly insulated and drafty. If your home (or especially the room you are going to use it in) is tightly sealed as almost all US homes are you should ensure ventilation and/or an exhaust system just as if you were installing a gas range/oven or a tank gas hot water heater.

2) SATISFACTION Obviously these hot water heaters work to raise the temp of a flow of water - their performance will therefore vary between seasons as the input water temp changes. They adjust temperature by increasing or decreasing the rate of flow. A 10-15 degree seasonal difference in the input temperature of the water will have a very noticeable impact on the rate of flow, and may disappoint you if you are inflexible in your expectations.

3) They are incredibly fuel efficient.

Google 'portable hot water heater'. Eccotemp is one brand of many. I've never used electric models, so I have no opinion on them.
Eccotemp L5 Outdoor Portable Tankless Water Heater


Today $119.00
Item #: 11715581

Enjoy hot water wherever you are with a tankless water heater
Camping accessory is perfect for campsites, cabins, or simply around the house
Camping gear ignition starts the flame only when water is running...more
...For outdoor use only


http://www.overstock.com/Sports-Toys/Eccotemp-L5-Outdoor-Portable-Tankless-Water-Heater/3650782/product.html?cid=123620

ECCOTEMP 10L Portable Tankless Water Heater LPG Gas

$208.99



The Eccotemp L10 tankless water heater is one of the hottest tankless water heaters on the market!

The Eccotemp L10 tankless water heater gives you endless hot water at your cabin, summer cottage, lake homes, potting sheds, RV's, campers, horse washing stalls or wherever else you need hot water. The Eccotemp L10 tankless water heater delivers up to 2.65 Gallons Per Minute of hot water ranging from 80-165 degrees F - plenty for 1-2 hot water applications running at the same time. The 2 "D" cell battery ignition starts the flame only when water is running, so there's no chance of overheating and makes it perfect for off grid or areas where you have limited electricity. Designed for a more permanent installation, the L10 comes with standard 1/2" NPT fittings, making it easily plumbed in with standard fixtures.

The ideal operating range is 25~80 PSI. The system also works great on modified water systems such as a 12 volt pump. Total dimensions are 28" tall (35" with rain cap), 17" wide, 6.5" deep and weighs about 18 pounds. Some of the other benefits:

Outdoor installation only
1 year manufacturer warranty on the unit
75,000 BTU
Includes stainless steel rain cap
Includes CSA regulator for use with standard 20 lbs grill propane tank
Battery igniter means no electricity needed
Garden hose adapter included
20 Minute automatic safety shutoff timer


http://www.atomicmall.com/view.php?id=1629768&mba=0

Obama using Executive Power to sidestep (R) obstructionism of renewable energy

Biofuels are not considered a viable option for personal transportation, but they are going to be essential for heavy duty applications such as shipping, aviation, construction equipment and agriculture. To achieve the goal of affordable biofuels for these applications new processes for producing the fuel must be made practical and scaled up; a goal that requires a market that will attract private investment in the manufacturing facilities that compete against fossil fuels.
This is a small slice of one of the best ways I've seen our President exercise his Executive Powers. He has done it not only in the military with biofuels, solar, wind and energy efficiency; but also in almost every area of government that he has direct control over.
So while there has been almost no progress on climate/energy big-picture legislation or international agreements, his behind the scenes approach has been yielding remarkable success in laying the economic groundwork for a viable infrastructure to move us away from fossil fuels.

The naysayers who would have you believe otherwise are full of it.

The Obama Plan for Cost-competitive Military Biofuels: The 10-Minute Guide
Domestic, diversified military fuels or affordable fuels? "False choice!" says Obama.

By Jim Lane, Biofuels Digest
July 3, 2012


It's finally here. The Obama Administration has laid out an integrated strategy for commercializing advanced biofuels, with a focus in this phase on military advanced biofuels at cost-competitive prices with conventional fuels.

The vehicle is a joint program between the DOE, USDA and the Department of Defense (principally, starring the US Navy, though, as we’ll see, critically including other elements).

In his Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future released in March 2011, President Obama set a goal of reducing oil imports by one-third by 2025 and laid out an all-of-the-above energy plan to achieve that goal by developing domestic oil and gas energy resources, increasing energy efficiency, and speeding development of biofuels and other alternatives.

It’s a huge step in the journey toward those goals — a multi-step, integrated program that we’ll investigate in today’s Digest, and provide to you in a convenient 10-Minute Guide with links to the full funding announcements....

http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2012/07/the-obama-plan-for-cost-competitive-military-biofuels-the-10-minute-guide?cmpid=WNL-Wednesday-July4-2012
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