HomeLatest ThreadsGreatest ThreadsForums & GroupsMy SubscriptionsMy Posts
DU Home » Latest Threads » marble falls » Journal
Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Next »

marble falls

Profile Information

Name: had to remove
Gender: Do not display
Hometown: marble falls, tx
Member since: Thu Feb 23, 2012, 04:49 AM
Number of posts: 29,444

About Me

Hand dyer mainly to the quilters market, doll maker, oil painter and teacher, anti-fas, cat owner, anti nuke, ex navy, reasonably good cook, father of three happy successful kids and three happy grand kids. Life is good.

Journal Archives

Pepsi Had Its Own Soviet War Fleet

https://smarthistoryblog.com/2016/11/22/pepsi-had-its-own-soviet-war-fleet/


Pepsi Had Its Own Soviet War Fleet
Published November 22, 2016 by Tanel in Iconic image


<snip>



The exhibition is primarily famous for the Kitchen Debate. But it also provided other historical moments of almost equal importance. One of them took place just moments before Khrushchev and Nixon entered the famous kitchen. Nixon steered the Soviet Premier, who was visibly hot and sweating, to the nearby Pepsi stand.

The booth was run by Donald M. Kendall, the head of Pepsi’s overseas operations and also a good friend of Richard Nixon. Kendall then served the Soviet leader Pepsi asking, whether he preferred a bottle of the drink as produced in New York or one made using local Moscow water.




Khrushchev, predictably, chose the local one and thereafter took his first skeptical sip of Pepsi from the cup that Kendall offered. He then tried the foreign one and immediately urged everyone to “Drink the Pepsi-Cola made in Moscow. It is much better than the Pepsi made in the U.S.”



It was, of course, a perfect marketing opportunity for the company. “I had to get a Pepsi in Khrushchev’s hands, or I’m in the doghouse back home,” Kendall remembered. “I had to get a picture.” The photo that was quickly taken was later made a central piece at the marketing campaign, that used the slogan “The Sociables prefer Pepsi” at that time.
Official Soda of the Cold War

It took Kendall another thirteen years, and state-level help from President Nixon, to see the Khrushchev moment finally pay off. On November the 16th 1972, under Kendall, who was now a chief executive, Pepsi finally stroke a barter deal with the Soviet government, that was a dream come true for the company. The PepsiCo was to trade its cola syrup for Stolichnaya vodka. By that, Pepsi became the first capitalist consumer product to be entirely produced, marketed and sold in the Soviet Union.



<snip>


In 1989, the initial deal between the government of the Soviet Union and PepsiCo was about to expire and a new three-billion-dollar deal was made.

This time the vodka bottles were not enough to pay for the soda and Russia used what it had plenty of at that time – military equipment.

Altogether 17 submarines, a cruiser, a frigate and a destroyer were given to the Pepsi Company in return for the constant flow of sugary drink that the Soviet people had learned to love so much.



The acquisition of those submarines made PepsiCo – at least for a few days – the 6th largest military power in the world by the number of its diesel submarines. These vessels were then quickly sold to a Swedish company for recycling.

<snip>


Karl Marx and Abraham Lincoln, Penpals

Karl Marx and Abraham Lincoln, Penpals
June 7, 2013 Eugene Wolters 25 Comments

http://www.critical-theory.com/karl-marx-and-abraham-lincoln-penpals/

Karl Marx invented communism. Sort of. Abraham Lincoln freed the slaves (not because he actually thought blacks were equal to whites, but because he thought “live and let live, right bro?”). So what the hell were these two writing to each other about? Apparently slavery, and how it sucked.

I first stumbled upon this letter from Karl Marx (on behalf of the International Working Men’s Association) congratulating Lincoln on his re-election. Marx acknowledges that working white folks have been pretty shitty to black slaves and that laborers everywhere should unite on behalf of the battle over slavery. He writes:

While the workingmen, the true political powers of the North, allowed slavery to defile their own republic, while before the Negro, mastered and sold without his concurrence, they boasted it the highest prerogative of the white-skinned laborer to sell himself and choose his own master, they were unable to attain the true freedom of labor, or to support their European brethren in their struggle for emancipation; but this barrier to progress has been swept off by the red sea of civil war.

The workingmen of Europe feel sure that, as the American War of Independence initiated a new era of ascendancy for the middle class, so the American Antislavery War will do for the working classes.

And thank god the North won, because Europe was really missing their cotton. Marx tells Lincoln that the laborers in Europe have been patiently waiting out the “hardships imposed upon them by the cotton crisis” in support of their enslaved comrades.

The best part? Lincoln replied, or at least his ambassador in London did (where Marx was located). The reply doesn’t say much, other than conveying a generic sense of gratitude and agreeing slavery is bad:

So far as the sentiments expressed by it are personal, they are accepted by him with a sincere and anxious desire that he may be able to prove himself not unworthy of the confidence which has been recently extended to him by his fellow citizens and by so many of the friends of humanity and progress throughout the world.

You can find the whole exchange here from Marxists.org. There is also an entire book, “An Unfinished Revolution,” about Marx’s and Lincoln’s letter exchanges. Whether or not the book encompasses more than these 2 letters is vague. The description reads.

Karl Marx and Abraham Lincoln exchanged letters at the end of the Civil War, with Marx writing on behalf of the International Working Men’s Association. Although they were divided by far more than the Atlantic Ocean, they agreed on the urgency of suppressing slavery and the cause of “free labor.” In his introduction Robin Blackburn argues that Lincoln’s response to the IWA was a sign of the importance of the German American community as well as of the role of the International in opposing European recognition of the Confederacy.

Mammoth Cheese An article courtesy of the Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia.

https://www.monticello.org/site/research-and-collections/mammoth-cheese

In the summer of 1801, Elder John Leland persuaded the ladies of his Baptist congregation in Cheshire, Massachusetts, to manufacture a "mammoth cheese." He intended to present it to President Thomas Jefferson in honor of his republicanism and his support of religious liberty.1

Word of the cheese-making and its purpose soon appeared in print. That August, a Republican newspaper in Rhode Island reported that the cheese utilized the milk of 900 cows, was formed in a cider press that measured six feet in diameter, and had engraved on it the motto, "Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God."2 Federalist papers responded with derision. One writer in the Hampshire Gazette employed Charles Willson Peale's scientific term "mammoth" to underscore how ludicrous he found the production of the enormous cheese.3 On January 26, 1802, after the cheese had been delivered, the Norwich Packet sarcastically reported that bakers in New York were "now preparing an oven of a magnitude sufficient to make a loaf of bread proportionate to the cheese," and that a glass manufacturer in Albany had "already blown a bottle of a size to contain one tun, which they intend to fill with ... [the] best American Porter." The article included that "Mr. Jefferson's convivial friends ... may not only have cheese, but bread, cheese, and porter."4

Late in November, Leland transported the cheese by sleigh or wagon from Massachusetts to the Hudson River, by sloop to New York and Baltimore, then by wagon to Washington, where it arrived on December 29, 1801. The Baptist elder presented the cheese to Jefferson in a small ceremony in the President's House on New Year's Day. He praised Jefferson for the "singular blessings that have been derived from the numerous services you have rendered to mankind in general." Leland further noted that the cheese "was produced by the personal labor of Freeborn Farmers, with the voluntary and cheerful aid of their wives and daughters, without the assistance of a single slave."5 The president's accepting remarks praised the people of Cheshire for this "extraordinary proof of the skill with which those domestic arts which contribute so much to our daily comfort are practised by them."6 Jefferson later wrote privately to his son-in-law of the cheese: "the Mammoth cheese is arrived here and is to be presented this day. it is 4 f 4½ I. diameter, 15. I. thick, and weighed in August 1230. ℔. They were offered 1000. D. in New York for the use of it 12. days as a shew. it is an ebullition of the passion of republicanism in a state where it has been under heavy persecution."7

Jefferson's policy to refuse gifts while in office led him on January 4, 1802, to pay Leland $200 for the cheese.8 Though no precise date can be given for the cheese's ultimate disposal, it appears to have been present at the President's House the following New Year's Day, and was reported to still be there as late as March of 1804 (at which point it was described as "very far from being good".9 Apocryphal accounts assert that the last of it was served at a presidential reception in 1805, or that it was dumped in the Potomac at some date unknown.

-J. Boehm, 10/97https://www.monticello.org/site/research-and-collections/mammoth-cheese

Lets face it: coronavirus will be cured. There's a market for a cure ...

and there are universities, pharma-labratories galore to be first and best.

The question will be who gets to meter the cure: the government like it did for polio and eventually did for HIV, or will it be in the hands of someone like this:

Black History Month Day 24 - Chollet brothers overcame Louisiana's history of segregation

Black History Month: Chollet brothers overcame Louisiana's history of segregation to become great New Orleans trio of athletic siblings

BY TED LEWIS | Contributing writer Feb 23, 2020 - 3:50 pm

5 min to read

https://www.nola.com/sports/article_7fb014c0-5686-11ea-bf97-ff36e33f56bc.html



?resize=360%2C574
Leroy Chollet
Photo provided



After Holy Cross won the Louisiana state basketball championship in 1942, the Times-Picayune declared, “Stars may come and stars may go, but it’ll be a long time before state basketball tournament fans forget the sensational performance of the point-getting Chollet brothers.”

Indeed, with all due respect to Cooper, Peyton and Eli Manning, Al, Leroy and Hillary Chollet may have been the best trio of athletic siblings New Orleans has ever seen. They excelled in football and track along with basketball, carrying the Tigers to another state title in 1943.

Al, the oldest, gave up sports after high school.

But 75 years ago in 1945 as a freshman, middle brother Leroy led Loyola to the National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball championship.

That spring and summer, Hillary, the youngest, was the object of an intense football recruiting battle between LSU and Tulane, making a late switch from the Tigers to the Green Wave.

<snip>

In Times-Picayune/The Advocate reporter Ramon Antonio Vargas’ account of the Loyola championship season, “Fight, Grin and Squarely Play the Game,” he reveals that Chollets’ paternal great-grandmother, Oliva Olinde, was born in 1873 to a black mother and white father. Olinde would later have three sons with Swiss-born Charles Chollet, one of which, Alfred, was the father of the Chollet brothers.

That made Al, Leroy and Hillary ⅛ black, which under the “one drop” standard of the day, was more than enough.

And while New Orleans has always been a diverse melting pot where the races are bonded by music, food and sports, in the 1940s Louisiana was still officially segregated. It would remain so for two more decades.

<snip>

More to the point, that meant the Chollets, whose parents moved from New Roads to New Orleans early in the 20th century, and apparently “passed” for white, would not have been admitted to Holy Cross, much less Loyola or LSU or Tulane, which did not admit black undergraduates until the 1960s.

Neither though, did the Chollets belong to black society, although Canisius considers Leroy its first African-American basketball player.

<snip>

“They were run out of town,” Al’s daughter, Lauren Collet, told Vargas. “That’s what he used to say,” adding that Al, who died in 1996, refused to return to New Orleans because it was “too unfair, racist and awful” for the family.

Leroy Chollet, who became a high school coach in Lakewood, Ohio, did return to New Orleans in 1993 to be inducted in the Loyola Hall of Fame.

And Hillary Chollet, who became a successful physician in Los Angeles founding a chain of cancer treatment centers, was inducted in the Holy Cross Hall of Fame in 2018.

<snip>

In basketball, Hillary earned All-State honors as the Tigers won the 1945 state title, this one with a 41-24 victory against Jesuit in the championship game. He was also the state champion in the long jump.

All that time, Leroy was making his mark at Loyola. Playing a schedule predominately made up of military teams since it was during the midst of World War II, the Wolfpack would go 25-5 capping their season with a 49-36 victory against Pepperdine to claim the championship of the small-college organization which would later change its name to the NAIA.

Chollet was Loyola’s leading scorer in both the regular season and the four-game national tournament in Kansas City, averaging 12.9 points per game.

<snip>

But after Leroy enrolled at Tulane, the rumors that he was partially black intensified. Speculation was that LSU did not want Chollet playing for its rival, although the Tigers’ top players of the era included brothers Steve and Elbert Van Buren who were mixed-race natives of Honduras.

<snip>

Not long afterwards, Leroy left Loyola, supposedly for academic reasons, and he enrolled at Canisius, which like Loyola, is a Jesuit school.

“It hurts me to think about it even today,” teammate Joe Gurievsky told Vargas in 2012. “It hurt the team because he was such a big part of it.

“I’m sorry he never came back. He was a great ballplayer.”

As Canisius, Leroy was dubbed “The Bayou Beauty,” and became the first player at the school to score more than 1,000 points in his career.

Two games during Leroy’s time at Canisius must have been particularly satisfying. In both 1946 and 1947, LSU came to Buffalo and both times the Griffins won with Cholet scoring 21 and 20 points, respectively.

After his senior season in 1949, Chollet signed with the Syracuse Nationals and was part of a team that made the NBA finals in 1950 and 1951.

But an inability to get along with Nats coach Al Cervi prompted Chollet to leave the NBA and move to Lakewood in suburban Cleveland where his wife, Barbara Knaus, was from.

<snip>

In 2013, Hillary’s son, also named Hillary and also a doctor in Los Angeles, published a novelized version of his father’s life called “White Coat and Sneakers.”

But the true story of the Chollets, while remindful of a shameful period of history in Louisiana and the rest of the South, is also one of triumph over adversity.

As Lauren Chollet recalled when Al, Leroy and Hillary would get together they would say, “The Chollet brothers. We made it through…. we made it through.”

If it bashes Sanders, Biden, Warren, Bloomberg, Buttigieg, Klobuchar, Gabbard, Steyer ...

in the headline - I'm not reading it. I know all I need to know about any of their feet of clay.

What I want to hear from them is their policy positions. I don't want to hear any more criticism of other's personalities from them, either. Criticize the plan, criticize the policy, most of all criticize Trump and and explain how we as Democrats repair his damage.

But I am sick and tired of the cults of personality we're in huge danger of becoming. Enough purity testing, already.

Vote. Vote Democratic. Vote Democratic all up and down the ballot. Write in a Democrat for all offices with GOP running unopposed.

Just remember: morons who refuse to vote for a POSTUS, aren't voting for any other office, either.

Our votes count or else they wouldn't be so hard at work taking them away from us.

If it bashes Sanders, Biden, Warren, Bloomberg, Buttigieg, Klobuchar, Gabbard, Steyer ...

in the headline - I'm not reading it. I know all I need to know about any of their feet of clay.

What I want to hear from them is their policy positions. I don't want to hear any more criticism of other's personalities from them, either. Criticize the plan, criticize the policy, most of all criticize Trump and and explain how we as Democrats repair his damage.

But I am sick and tired of the cults of personality we're in huge danger of becoming. Enough purity testing, already.

Vote. Vote Democratic. Vote Democratic all up and down the ballot. Write in a Democrat for all offices with GOP running unopposed.

Just remember: morons who refuse to vote for a POSTUS, aren't voting for any other office, either.

Our votes count or else they wouldn't be so hard at work taking them away from us.

Black History Month Day 23 - Henrietta Lacks - a true 'immortal'

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Lacks





Henrietta Lacks circa 1945–1951
Born Loretta Pleasant

August 1, 1920
Roanoke, Virginia, U.S.
Died October 4, 1951 (aged 31)
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Monuments Henrietta Lacks Health and Bioscience High School; historical marker at Clover, Virginia
Occupation Tobacco farmer
Height 5 ft (150 cm) tall[1]
Spouse(s) David Lacks (1915–2002) m. 1941
Children Lawrence Lacks
Elsie Lacks (1939–1955)
David "Sonny" Lacks Jr.
Deborah Lacks Pullum (1949–2009)
Zakariyya Bari Abdul Rahman (born Joseph Lacks)
Parent(s) Eliza (1886–1924) and John Randall Pleasant I (1881–1969)

Henrietta Lacks (born Loretta Pleasant; August 1, 1920 – October 4, 1951)[2] was an African-American woman[3] whose cancer cells are the source of the HeLa cell line, the first immortalized human cell line[4] and one of the most important cell lines in medical research. An immortalized cell line reproduces indefinitely under specific conditions, and the HeLa cell line continues to be a source of invaluable medical data to the present day.[5]

Lacks was the unwitting source of these cells from a tumor biopsied during treatment for cervical cancer at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S., in 1951. These cells were then cultured by George Otto Gey who created the cell line known as HeLa, which is still used for medical research.[6] As was then the practice, no consent was obtained to culture her cells, nor were she or her family compensated for their extraction or use.

Lacks grew up in rural Virginia. After giving birth to two of their children, she married her cousin David "Day" Lacks. In 1941 the young family moved to Turner Station, near Dundalk, Maryland, in Baltimore County, so Day could work in Bethlehem Steel at Sparrows Point. After Lacks had given birth to their fifth child, she was diagnosed with cancer.[7] Tissue samples from her tumors were taken without consent during treatment and these samples were then subsequently cultured into the HeLa cell line.

Even though some information about the origins of HeLa's immortalized cell lines was known to researchers after 1970, the Lacks family was not made aware of the line's existence until 1975. With knowledge of the cell line's genetic provenance becoming public, its use for medical research and for commercial purposes continues to raise concerns about privacy and patients' rights.


Personal life

Henrietta Lacks was born Loretta Pleasant on August 1, 1920,[2][8] in Roanoke, Virginia, to Eliza and Johnny Pleasant.[9] Her family is uncertain how her name changed from Loretta to Henrietta, but she was nicknamed Hennie.[2] When Lacks was four years old in 1924, her mother died giving birth to her tenth child.[9] Unable to care for the children alone after his wife's death, Lacks' father moved the family to Clover, Virginia, where the children were distributed among relatives. Lacks ended up with her grandfather, Tommy Lacks, in a two-story log cabin that was once the slave quarters on the plantation that had been owned by Henrietta's white great-grandfather and great-uncle.[2] She shared a room with her nine-year-old cousin and future husband, David "Day" Lacks (1915–2002).[9]

<snip>

On January 29, 1951, Lacks went to Johns Hopkins, the only hospital in the area that treated black patients, because she felt a "knot" in her womb.[12] She had previously told her cousins about the "knot" and they assumed correctly that she was pregnant. But after giving birth, Lacks had a severe hemorrhage. Her primary care doctor tested her for syphilis, which came back negative, and referred her back to Johns Hopkins. There, her doctor, Howard W. Jones, took a biopsy of the mass on Lacks' cervix for laboratory testing. Soon after, Lacks was told that she had a malignant epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix.[a][14] In 1970, physicians discovered that she had been misdiagnosed and actually had an adenocarcinoma. This was a common mistake at the time and the treatment would not have differed.[16]

Lacks was treated with radium tube inserts as an inpatient and discharged a few days later with instructions to return for X-ray treatments as a follow-up. During her treatments, two samples were taken from Lacks' cervix without her permission or knowledge; one sample was of healthy tissue and the other was cancerous.[17] These samples were given to George Otto Gey, a physician and cancer researcher at Johns Hopkins. The cells from the cancerous sample eventually became known as the HeLa immortal cell line, a commonly used cell line in contemporary biomedical research.[2]



On August 8, 1951, Lacks, who was 31 years old, went to Johns Hopkins for a routine treatment session and asked to be admitted due to continued severe abdominal pain. She received blood transfusions and remained at the hospital until her death on October 4, 1951.[18] A partial autopsy showed that the cancer had metastasized throughout her entire body.[2][19]
Lacks Town Road in Clover, Virginia, near where Lacks grew up and is buried

Lacks was buried in an unmarked grave in the family cemetery in a place called Lackstown in Halifax County, Virginia. Lackstown is the name that was given to the land in Clover, Virginia, that was originally owned by slave-owning members of the Lacks family in the antebellum South.

Lacks's exact burial location is unknown, but the family believes that it is within a few feet of her mother's grave site, which for decades was the only one in the family to have been marked with a tombstone.[2][19][20] In 2010, Roland Pattillo, a faculty member of the Morehouse School of Medicine who had worked with George Gey and knew the Lacks family,[21] donated a headstone for Lacks.[22] This prompted her family to raise money for a headstone for Elsie Lacks as well, which was dedicated on the same day.[22] The headstone of Henrietta Lacks is shaped like a book and contains an epitaph written by her grandchildren that reads:[2]

Henrietta Lacks, August 1, 1920 - October 4, 1951
In loving memory of a phenomenal woman,
wife and mother who touched the lives of many.
Here lies Henrietta Lacks (HeLa). Her immortal
cells will continue to help mankind forever.
Eternal Love and Admiration, From Your Family[23]




George Otto Gey, the first researcher to study Lacks's cancerous cells, observed that her cells were unique in that they reproduced at a very high rate and could be kept alive long enough to allow more in-depth examination.[24] Until then, cells cultured for laboratory studies survived for only a few days at most, which wasn't long enough to perform a variety of different tests on the same sample. Lacks's cells were the first to be observed that could be divided multiple times without dying, which is why they became known as "immortal." After Lacks' death, Gey had Mary Kubicek, his lab assistant, take further HeLa samples while Henrietta's body was at Johns Hopkins' autopsy facility.[25] The roller-tube technique[c] was the method used to culture the cells obtained from the samples that Kubicek collected.[27] Gey was able to start a cell line from Lacks's sample by isolating one specific cell and repeatedly dividing it, meaning that the same cell could then be used for conducting many experiments. They became known as HeLa cells, because Gey's standard method for labeling samples was to use the first two letters of the patient's first and last names.[2]

The ability to rapidly reproduce HeLa cells in a laboratory setting has led to many important breakthroughs in biomedical research. For example, by 1954, Jonas Salk was using HeLa cells in his research to develop the polio vaccine.[19] To test his new vaccine, the cells were mass-produced in the first-ever cell production factory.[28] Additionally, Chester M. Southam, a leading virologist, injected HeLa cells into cancer patients, prison inmates, and healthy individuals in order to observe whether cancer could be transmitted as well as to examine if one could become immune to cancer by developing an acquired immune response.[29]

HeLa cells were in high demand and put into mass production. They were mailed to scientists around the globe for "research into cancer, AIDS, the effects of radiation and toxic substances, gene mapping, and countless other scientific pursuits".[19] HeLa cells were the first human cells successfully cloned in 1955,[30] and have since been used to test human sensitivity to tape, glue, cosmetics, and many other products.[2] Since the 1950s, scientists have grown as much as 50 million metric tons of her cells,[31] and there are almost 11,000 patents involving HeLa cells.[2]

In the early 1970s, a large portion of other cell cultures became contaminated by HeLa cells. As a result, members of Henrietta Lacks's family received solicitations for blood samples from researchers hoping to learn about the family's genetics in order to differentiate between HeLa cells and other cell lines.[32][33]

Alarmed and confused, several family members began questioning why they were receiving so many telephone calls requesting blood samples. In 1975, the family also learned through a chance dinner-party conversation that material originating in Henrietta Lacks was continuing to be used for medical research.[19] The family had never discussed Henrietta's illness and death among themselves in the intervening years but with the increased curiosity about their mother and her genetics, they now began to ask questions.[2]

Consent issues and privacy concerns

Neither Henrietta Lacks nor her family gave her physicians permission to harvest her cells. At that time, permission was neither required nor customarily sought.[34] The cells were used in medical research and for commercial purposes.[19][2] In the 1980s, family medical records were published without family consent. A similar issue was brought up in the Supreme Court of California case of Moore v. Regents of the University of California in 1990. The court ruled that a person's discarded tissue and cells are not their property and can be commercialized.[35]

In March 2013, researchers published the DNA sequence of the genome of a strain of HeLa cells. The Lacks family discovered this when the author Rebecca Skloot informed them.[32] There were objections from the Lacks family about the genetic information that was available for public access. Jeri Lacks Whye, a grandchild of Henrietta Lacks, said to The New York Times, "the biggest concern was privacy - what information was actually going to be out there about our grandmother, and what information they can obtain from her sequencing that will tell them about her children and grandchildren and going down the line" . That same year another group working on a different HeLa cell line's genome under National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding submitted it for publication. In August 2013, an agreement was announced between the family and the NIH that gave the family some control over access to the cells' DNA sequence found in the two studies along with a promise of acknowledgement in scientific papers. In addition, two family members will join the six-member committee which will regulate access to the sequence data.[36][32]


In 1996, Morehouse School of Medicine held its first annual HeLa Women's Health Conference. Led by physician Roland Pattillo, the conference is held to give recognition to Henrietta Lacks, her cell line, and "the valuable contribution made by African Americans to medical research and clinical practice".[37][22][38] The mayor of Atlanta declared the date of the first conference, October 11, 1996, "Henrietta Lacks Day".[39]

Lacks's contributions continue to be celebrated at yearly events in Turner Station.[40][41] At one such event in 1997, then-U.S. Congressman from Maryland, Robert Ehrlich, presented a congressional resolution recognizing Lacks and her contributions to medical science and research.[42]

In 2010, the Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research established the annual Henrietta Lacks Memorial Lecture Series[43] to honor Henrietta Lacks and the global impact of HeLa cells on medicine and research.[44] During the 2018 lectures, the University announced the naming of a new building on the medical campus for Lacks.[45]

In 2011, Morgan State University in Baltimore granted Lacks a posthumous honorary doctorate in public service.[46] Also in 2011, the Evergreen School District in Vancouver, Washington, named their new high school focused on medical careers the Henrietta Lacks Health and Bioscience High School, becoming the first organization to memorialize her publicly by naming a school in her honor.[47][48]

In 2014, Lacks was inducted into the Maryland Women's Hall of Fame.[49][50] In 2017, a minor planet in the main asteroid belt was named "359426 Lacks" in her honor.[51][52]

In 2018 the New York Times published a belated obituary for her [53] as part of the Overlooked history project.[54][55] Also in 2018, the National Portrait Gallery and the National Museum of African-American History and Culture jointly announced the accession of a portrait of Lacks by Kadir Nelson.[56]

On October 6, 2018, Johns Hopkins University announced plans to name a research building in honor of Lacks.[57] The announcement was made at the 9th annual Henrietta Lacks Memorial Lecture in the Turner Auditorium in East Baltimore by Johns Hopkins University President Ronald J. Daniels and Paul B. Rothman, CEO of Johns Hopkins Medicine and dean of the medical faculty of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, surrounded by several of Lacks' descendants. “Through her life and her immortal cells, Henrietta Lacks made an immeasurable impact on science and medicine that has touched countless lives around the world,” Daniels said. “This building will stand as a testament to her transformative impact on scientific discovery and the ethics that must undergird its pursuit. We at Johns Hopkins are profoundly grateful to the Lacks family for their partnership as we continue to learn from Mrs. Lacks’ life and to honor her enduring legacy.” The building will adjoin the Berman Institute of Bioethics’ Deering Hall, located at the corner of Ashland and Rutland Avenues and "will support programs that enhance participation and partnership with members of the community in research that can benefit the community, as well as extend the opportunities to further study and promote research ethics and community engagement in research through an expansion of the Berman Institute and its work."[57]

Twofer: The Apartment in 3:41 and Pogo ...

Black History Month Day 22 - In a Town That Escaped Slavery,

In a Town That Escaped Slavery, an Oyster Festival Celebrates Black Culture and Resistance
The shells may have once pointed the way to freedom.
by Tarisai Ngangura December 12, 2019



https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/what-are-quilombos-brazil

It was a scorching hot Saturday in the Recôncavo region of Bahia, Brazil, but instead of heading to the beach or Paraguaçu River, hundreds of people had chosen to dine alfresco at Quilombo Kaonge, a community located far from the main road and deep within the trees and bramble. On the menu: freshly caught oysters served fried, raw with a spritz of lime, stewed in a moqueca (seafood stew), or grilled over an open fire. While classic Samba do Rio blared from the stereos, partygoers sang along from their seats. Elderly black women sat in circles fanning themselves, some in towering headwraps and many in straw hats, while those with relaxed hair consistently dabbed their edges. As the day progressed, the crowd shifted to Afro-Brazilian youth on their phones, who took pictures to share on Whatsapp and danced to bass-focused pagode music.

This was the 11th annual Festa da Ostra (oyster festival) held in October. During the festivities, there was acknowledgement of a Black past and a celebration of its future, and families, neighbors, and travelers from as far as São Paulo had come to take part in it. They were celebrating a community that emerged from pain and sacrifice: Before Brazil abolished the slave industry in 1888, some 4 million Africans arrived in chains in the ports of the Recôncavo. Of those who escaped, many found refuge in quilombos—well-hidden communities built in densely forested mountains and swampy lowlands by formerly enslaved people. The money raised by the Festa da Ostra helps maintain Quilombo Kaonge as an independent center of Black life—even as Brazil’s new president disparages quilombos’ existence.


Once a hidden refuge for formerly enslaved people, Kaonge now announces its oyster festival with prominent signs. Tarisai Ngangura

Brazil’s involvement in the transatlantic slave trade dates back to the 1400s, and the country ultimately “imported” more enslaved Africans than the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, and Haiti combined. For the Africans who survived the Atlantic passage—and found themselves in Bahia’s sugarcane fields or the country’s Southern mines—resistance looked like revolts, covert religious ceremonies, and quilombos.

The name quilombo comes from the Kimbundu word “kilombo,” which means “war camp” or “hideout, and originally described a temporary residence for nomads or displaced people. At its peak, the Palmares Quilombo, which was founded by two of Brazil’s most revered Black leaders, Zumbi dos Palmares and his wife Dandara dos Palmares, was home to more than 20,000 inhabitants. Quilombos and the people who lived there, known as Quilombolas, lived separate from Portuguese rule under a political system rooted in the Bantu traditions they had come from (community, balance, and agriculturally based). Although Brazil’s census does not include national data on quilombos, NGOs estimate that there are more than 1,500 across the country with more than 100 whose land claims are still pending. Kaonge, which has been politically recognized, is a matriarchal community led by its spiritual leader and griote (storyteller), senhora Juviani Viana.
of escaped slaves that challenged colonial rule.
Musicians play during Black Awareness Day in front of the statue of Zumbi dos Palmares, who founded a community of escaped slaves that challenged colonial rule. YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP via Getty Images

“My entire family has lived here for generations,” senhora Viana tells me. She is sitting in the middle of the square, keeping her eyes closely trained on everything happening around her. “I took on the role of leader after my oldest sister passed away a few years ago.”

Now in her late 50s, she walks with the aid of a wooden stick. “I used to be able to help make everything we eat and sell here: the dende oil, the pimenta, the oysters. But now my body just can’t take it,” she says with a resigned laugh.

During the festival, seafood is the most popular option, and oysters are the main course. Which is fitting, since oysters have long been key to quilombos surviving and thriving.

Historically, Brazilians viewed oysters as peasant food, considering them too much of a hardship to both find and properly clean. “People thought oysters were dirty food,” says senhora Viana. “Black people couldn’t afford to eat beef and pork, so we made oysters something that we could enjoy.”



Many quilombos were built next to river beds with significant oyster populations that fed their free inhabitants. In addition, crushed oyster shells were used as ancestral summoning tools during sacred ceremonies that continue today, and oral stories passed through generations speak of Quilombolas marking the way to the hard-to-find quilombos with oyster shells.

In the neighboring city of Salvador, high-end restaurants now charge upwards of 120 reais ($28) for an oyster dish, one you can easily purchase for 20 or 40 reais at Quilombo Kaonge. Kaonge sustains itself with oyster farming, and the weekend festa raises money that funds better harvesting equipment, school tuitions, more than a dozen grassroots community organizations, and the daily upkeep of homes. In a country where white workers earn 72.5 percent more than black and brown workers, the economic self-sufficiency of Kaonge is both a relief and an inspiration. The weekend long get-together is an opportunity to not only revel in the successes of an Afro-Brazilian settlement, but also acknowledge Black ingenuity and lose yourself in untempered Black joy.

<snip>

As radically subversive as the history of quilombos is, the majority of the settlements, much like Native American and First Nations reservations in the U.S. and Canada, have very poor living conditions. In 2007, the most current and extensive report regarding quilombos’ quality of life found that 91 percent of Quilombola families had a monthly income of less than $190, compared to the average national income of $204. The same report discovered that the number of malnourished children in quilombos is 76 percent higher than the national rate. It’s inside this inescapable reality that Quilombo Kaonge exists as a space that has navigated inequitable systems of power and access to create a safe place for its residents.

In 1986, Afro-Brazilian Congresswoman Benedita da Silva created a law that would allow quilombo residents to own their land. This was meant to halt the hundreds of cases where Quilombolas were forced off their land by farmers or the fast-growing eucalyptus monoculture business, which plants acres of the tree to make paper. In 2003, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva expanded on this law by issuing a presidential decree classifying Quilombola as an ethnicity with a distinct history and culture that, when claimed and proven, would give descendants full land rights.

But government bureaucracy has made claiming land rights a slow and unnerving process, one that could be quickly and easily undone by President Jair Bolsonaro, whose election last October has meant a rise in ultra right-wing political rhetoric. During a 2017 interview while still a Federal Deputy, Bolsonaro was asked about the importance of quilombos and safeguarding their history. “I have been on a quilombo. The quilombolas don’t do anything,” he responded. “They are not even good for breeding anymore. More than R$1 billion is spent on them.” As of January this year at least 230 quilombo and indigenous territories were under threat after Bolsonaro transferred quilombo and indigenous land claims to the Ministry of Agriculture—a ministry that largely favors major farming and mining companies.

<snip>

There is a tangible sense of ubuntu, the Zulu word for humanity, on Quilombo Kaonge. The tenet of ubuntu, “I am because we are,” is a deeply African principle, and it’s one that almost four centuries of slavery and subsequent decades of systemic and structural anti-black violence have failed to break down. Because during one October weekend, in a small community of less than 50 families, copious amounts of cerveja were consumed and one man and his two sons shucked and shared 40 kilograms of oysters and, on the last night, as people slowly filed out, Senhora Viana delivered a blessing: “We are the children of Obàtálá, the children of Iemanjá. Go in peace.”
Go to Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Next »