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nationalize the fed

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Member since: Wed Mar 12, 2014, 07:47 AM
Number of posts: 2,169

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Help Nationalize the Federal Reserve- It is the progressive thing to do. Why is the Public Currency not a Public Utility? http://www.progressivegazette.com/2013/12/nationalize-federal-reserve.html And Tax Speculation- why does Wall Street pay no sales tax?

Journal Archives

The Human Soldiers Behind Obama's Drone War

"We always wonder if we killed the right people, if we destroyed an innocent civilian's life all because of a bad image or angle."

Pratap Chatterjee motherjones.com Mon May 12, 2014



Enemies, innocent victims, and soldiers have always made up the three faces of war. With war growing more distant, with drones capable of performing on the battlefield while their "pilots" remain thousands of miles away, two of those faces have, however, faded into the background in recent years. Today, we are left with just the reassuring "face" of the terrorist enemy, killed clinically by remote control while we go about our lives, apparently without any "collateral damage" or danger to our soldiers. Now, however, that may slowly be changing, bringing the true face of the drone campaigns Washington has pursued since 9/11 into far greater focus.

Imagine if those drone wars going on in Pakistan and Yemen (as well as the United States) had a human face all the time, so that we could understand what it was like to live constantly, in and out of those distant battle zones, with the specter of death. In addition to images of the "al-Qaeda" operatives who the White House wants us to believe are the sole targets of its drone campaigns, we would regularly see photos of innocent victims of drone attacks gathered by human rights groups from their relatives and neighbors. And what about the third group— the military personnel whose lives revolve around killing fields so far away—whose stories, in these years of Washington's drone assassination campaigns, we've just about never heard?

After all, soldiers no longer set sail on ships to journey to distant battlefields for months at a time. Instead, every day, thousands of men and women sign onto their computers at desks on military bases in the continental United States and abroad where they spend hours glued to screens watching the daily lives of people often on the other side of the planet. Occasionally, they get an order from Washington to push a button and vaporize their subjects. It sounds just like—and the comparison has been made often enough—a video game, which can be switched off at the end of a shift, after which those pilots return home to families and everyday life...more
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/05/drone-war-us-pilots-victims
Posted by nationalize the fed | Mon May 12, 2014, 11:32 PM (1 replies)

33 yrs ago Bob Marley Passed. Why did the son of CIA Director William Colby give Bob a pair of boots

with an embedded copper wire in one of the toes just months before the cancer symptoms appeared- in one of Bob's toes?

Chanting Down Babylon: The CIA & The Death of Bob Marley

Story By Alex Constantine original pub date: Feb 2002
http://www.hightimes.com/read/chanting-down-babylon-cia-death-bob-marley


Only a handful of Marley’s most trusted comrades knew of the band’s whereabouts before the festival. Yet a member of the film crew, or so he claimed – reportedly, he didn’t have a camera – managed to talk his way past machete-bearing Rastas to enter the Hope Road encampment: one Carl Colby, son of the late CIA director William Colby.

While the band prepared for the concert, a gift was delivered, according to a witness at the enclave – a pair of boots for Bob Marley. Former Los Angeles cinematographer Lee Lew-Lee [his camera work can be seen in the Oscar-winning documentary The Panama Deception] was close friends with members of the Wailers, and he believes that Marley’s cancer can be traced to the boots: “He put his foot in and said, ‘Ow!’ A friend got in there… he said, ‘let’s [get] in the boot, and he pulled a length of copper wire out – it was embedded in the boot.”


Had the wire been treated chemically with a carcinogenic toxin? The appearance of Colby at Marley’s compound was certainly provocative. [And so was Colby’s subsequent part in the fall of another black cultural icon, O.J. Simpson, nearly 20 years later. At Simpson’s preliminary hearing in 1995, Colby – who resided next door to Nicole Simpson on Gretna Green Way in Brentwood, a mile from her residence on Bundy – and his wife both took the stand to testify for the prosecution that Nicole’s ex-husband had badgered and threatened her. Colby’s testimony was instrumental in the formal charge of murder filed against Simpson and the nationally televised fiasco known as the “Trial of the Century.”]

Seventeen years after the Hope Road assault, Don Taylor published a memoir, Marley and Me, in which he alleges that a “senior CIA agent” had been planted among the crew as part of the plan to “assassinate” Marley. It’s possible that this lapse in security allowed Colby entrance to the compound. It’s clear that the CIA wanted Marley out of the picture. After the assassination attempt, a rumor circulated that the CIA was going to finish Marley off. The source of the rumor was the agency itself. The Wailers had set out on a world tour, and CIA agents informed Marley that should he return to Jamaica before the election, he would be murdered...

full article: http://www.hightimes.com/read/chanting-down-babylon-cia-death-bob-marley




RIP Robert Nesta Marley O.M.

6 February 1945- 11 May 1981
One of the greatest men that ever lived.
Thanks Bob. We love you forever.
Posted by nationalize the fed | Sun May 11, 2014, 05:29 PM (0 replies)

Hyundai aims high for future with eco-friendly cars

Automaker creating a line of hydrogen-based and plug-in vehicles in preparation for 2020s



...The R&D center, which opened in 2005, conducts research for almost any eco-friendly technology system, including parts. Its research in recent years has culminated in creation of the hydrogen-powered Tucson ix fuel cell electric vehicle.

The FCEV uses a “stack” of cells that electro-chemically combine hydrogen with oxygen to generate electricity and propel the car. Its only emission is water, which also can be recycled.

Researchers here are now busier than ever after Hyundai Motor Group Chairman Chung Mong-koo said in the company’s 2014 sustainability report that he will push the automaker to become a leader in the environmentally-friendly car market...

...According to Reuters, Toyota’s new FCEV will use about 30 grams of platinum in the fuel-cell, which is 40 grams less than Hyundai’s Tucson ix FCEV. Platinum currently costs more than $1,400 an ounce (28 grams) in the global market...

edit-add link- http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/Article.aspx?aid=2988770



Hyundai's new fuel cell car will be available for lease in the next few weeks to residents of Orange County CA.

The hydrogen fuel for the car, which will be made from sewage, will be free to the first customers. For some, that's a free car.
http://www.fastcoexist.com/3027144/this-new-hyundai-car-runs-on-the-poop-of-california-residents-and-the-fuel-is-free

Honda H20


Posted by nationalize the fed | Sun May 11, 2014, 03:03 PM (7 replies)

.

Posted by nationalize the fed | Sun May 11, 2014, 02:06 PM (0 replies)

Honda H20



http://world.honda.com/news/2010/c100127New-Solar-Hydrogen-Station/
http://world.honda.com/news/2012/4120327Solar-Hydrogen-Station/index.html
Posted by nationalize the fed | Thu May 8, 2014, 04:15 PM (0 replies)

kick

You might be able to do this with a Tesla but you'd discharge the batteries. And don't let them fully discharge, or you'll have to replace the 1,000 pounds of lithium batteries at a cost of anywhere between $5 and $40,000. The Toyota would actually generate the electricity -as much as 100KW. Average KW consumption is ~30kwh/day

Remember that this power comes from a renewable source- Hydrogen- that can be made by anyone with access to electricity- from any source- with water as exhaust.

CES 2014: Toyota Wants Its Fuel Cells to Also Power Your Home in a Pinch



Toyota's CES press event yesterday was mainly dedicated to discussing the state of the carmaker's hydrogen fuel-cell program and the current state of hydrogen refueling infrastructure. But one particular aside tossed off by Toyota's senior vice president, Robert Carter, stood out. According to Carter, Toyota is also working on an external device that would allow a hydrogen fuel-cell car to charge a house for up to a week in case of an emergency.

The idea is not far-fetched. Between its fuel-cell program and the Prius, Toyota has invested heavily in battery R&D. According to Carter, Toyota's current fuel stacks, which combine oxygen and hydrogen to create water and electricity, can store up to 100 Kw of power. Considering that's the same amount of power in some commercial generators, powering your average house sounds feasible. In fact, it sounds kind of brilliant...
http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/news/auto-blog/ces-2014-toyota-wants-its-fuel-cells-to-also-power-your-home-in-a-pinch-16353888


Honda Begins Experiments with Hydrogen Home Energy Station and Improves Solar-Cell Technology for Production of Hydrogen


http://world.honda.com/news/2003/c031002.html
Posted by nationalize the fed | Thu May 8, 2014, 11:32 AM (0 replies)

Senator Bernie Sanders scheduled for Reddit AMA WED May 7 5:30pm EDT, 2:30pm PDT

http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/

Posted by nationalize the fed | Tue May 6, 2014, 09:21 PM (2 replies)

Building a hydrogen refueling station in 48 hours (time-lapse) in Denmark

More accurately Installing a H2 station in 48 hours.

Proof that a Hydrogen refueling infrastructure does not have to take 10 or 20 years



A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept. The stations are usually intended to power vehicles, but can also be used to power small devices. Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. The hydrogen fuel dispensers dispense the fuel by the kilogram.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_station




A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other hydrogen infrastructure along a road or highway which would allow hydrogen powered cars to travel. It is an element of the hydrogen infrastructure that is generally assumed to be a pre-requisite for mass utilization of hydrogen cars.

For instance, William Clay Ford Jr. has stated that infrastructure is one of three factors (also including costs and manufacturability in high volumes) that hold back the marketability of fuel cell cars,[1] (some commentators, such as Amory Lovins in Natural Capitalism, have argued that such infrastructure may not be necessary). Hence, there are plans and proposals to begin developing hydrogen highways through private and public funds...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_highway


Posted by nationalize the fed | Tue May 6, 2014, 11:11 AM (2 replies)

Desalination around the world- how other countries are making fresh water from the ocean

I posted this in a California Drought thread but thought it might be a worthy stand alone.

Existing facilities and facilities under construction
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination#Existing_facilities_and_facilities_under_construction

Estimates vary widely between 15,000-20,000 desalination plants producing more than 20,000 m3/day around the world.

Algeria

Believed to have at least 15 desalination plants in operation
Arzew IWPP Power & Desalination Plant, Arzew
Cap Djinet Seawater Reverse Osmosis(SWRO) 100,000 m3/d
Tlemcen Souk Tleta 200,000 m3/day
Tlemcen Hounaine 200,000 m3/day
Beni Saf 200,000 m3/day
Tenes 200,000 m3/day
Fouka 120,000 m3/day
Skikda 100,000 m3/day
Hamma Seawater Desalination Plant 200,000 m3/day built by GE
Mostaganem, once considered the largest in Africa
Magtaa Reverse Osmosis (RO) Desalination Plant, Oran, Algeria

Aruba

The island of Aruba has a large (world’s largest at the time of its inauguration) desalination plant, with a total installed capacity of 11.1e6 US gallons (42,000 m3) per day.

Australia
Main article: Seawater desalination in Australia

In Australia many desalination plants are utilizing wind farms to produce enough energy to operate nearby desalination plants. For example, the Kurnell Desalination Plant, with a capacity of producing 250 million liters (ML) of drinking water per day, supplies 15% of Sydney’s water needs via RO technology and is powered using “100 percent renewable energy” from the 140 MW Capital Wind Farm.

The Garden Island plant, currently planned for commissioning in 2014, will be powered by wave energy, using Carnegie Wave Energy's CETO system. This system uses submerged buoys to pressurise water offshore, which is piped onshore to either drive turbines for electricity generation or as in this case, to directly desalinate seawater. The Garden Island project is a commercial scale demonstration project, which follows a pilot project off the coast of Fremantle, Western Australia

List of desalination plants in Australia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_desalination_plants_in_Australia

Sydney Desalination plant- Desalination plant of the year



Gold Coast Desalination Plant 125 megalitres



Perth Seawater Desalination Plant 130 megalitres
Wonthaggi Desalination Plant 410 megalitres



7 more operating now, more planned

Bahrain

Completed in 2000, the Al Hidd Desalination Plant on Muharraq island employed a multistage flash process, and produces 272,760 m3 (9,632,000 cu ft) per day. The Al Hidd distillate forwarding station provides 410 million liters of distillate water storage in a series of 45-million-liter steel tanks. A 135-million-liters/day forwarding pumping station sends flows to the Hidd, Muharraq, Hoora, Sanabis, and Seef blending stations, and which has an option for gravity supply for low flows to blending pumps and pumps which forward to Janusan, Budiya and Saar.

Upon completion of the third construction phase, the Durrat Al Bahrain seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant was planned to have a capacity of 36,000 cubic meters of potable water per day to serve the irrigation needs of the Durrat Al Bahrain development. The Bahrain-based utility company, Energy Central Co contracted to design, build and operate the plant.

Chile

Copiapó Desalination Plant

China

China operates the Beijing Desalination Plant in Tianjin, a combination desalination and coal-fired power plant designed to alleviate Tianjin's critical water shortage. Though the facility has the capacity to produce 200,000 cubic meters of potable water per day, it has never operated at more than one-quarter capacity due to difficulties with local utility companies and an inadequate local infrastructure.

Cyprus

A plant operates in Cyprus near the town of Larnaca. The Dhekelia Desalination Plant uses the reverse osmosis system.

Egypt

Dahab RO Desalination Plants Dahab 3,600 m3/day completed 1999
Hurgada and Sharm El-Sheikh Power and Desalination Plants
Oyoun Moussa Power and Desalination
Zaafarana Power and Desalination

Gibraltar

Fresh water in Gibraltar is supplied by a number of reverse osmosis and multistage flash desalination plants. A demonstration forward osmosis desalination plant also operates there.

Grand Cayman

West Bay, West Bay, Grand Cayman
Abel Castillo Water Works, Governor's Harbour, Grand Cayman
Britannia, Seven Mile Beach, Grand Cayman

Hong Kong

The HK Water Supplies Department had pilot desalination plants in Tuen Mun and Ap Lei Chau using reverse osmosis technology. The production cost was at HK$7.8 to HK$8.4 /m3. In 2011, the government announced a feasibility study whether to build a desalination plant in Tseung Kwan O. Hong Kong used to have a desalination plant in Lok On Pai.

India

The largest desalination plant in South Asia is the Minjur Desalination Plant near Chennai in India, which produces 36.5 million cubic meters of water per year.



A second plant at Nemmeli, Chennai is expected to reach full capacity of 100 million litres of sea-water per day in March 2013.

Iran

An assumption is that around 400,000 m3/d of historic and newly installed capacity is operational in Iran. In terms of technology, Iran’s existing desalination plants use a mix of thermal processes and RO. MSF is the most widely used thermal technology although MED and vapour compression (VC) also feature.

Israel

Israel Desalination Enterprises’ Sorek Desalination Plant in Palmachim provides up to 26,000 m³ of potable water per hour (2.300 m³ p.a.). At full capacity, it is the largest desalination plant of its kind in the world. Once unthinkable, given Israels history of drought and lack of available fresh water resource, with desalination, Israel can now actually produce a surplus of fresh water

http://www.water-technology.net/projects/sorek-desalination-plant/



The Hadera seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Israel is the largest of its kind in the world. The project was developed as a build–operate–transfer by a consortium of two Israeli companies: Shikun and Binui, and IDE Technologies.

Malta

Ghar Lapsi II 50,000 m3/day

Oman

A pilot seawater greenhouse was built in 2004 near Muscat, in collaboration with Sultan Qaboos University, providing a sustainable horticultural sector on the Batinah coast.
Ghubrah Power & Desalination Plant, Muscat
Sohar Power & Desalination Plant, Sohar
Sur R.O. Desalination Plant 80,000 m3/day 2009
Qarn Alam 1000 m3/day
Wilayat Diba 2000 m3/day

There are at least two forward osmosis plants operating in Oman
Al Najdah 200 m3/day (built by Modern Water)
Al Khaluf

Saudi Arabia

The Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia provides 50% of the municipal water in the Kingdom, operates a number of desalination plants, and has contracted $1.892 billion to a Japanese-South Korean consortium to build a new facility capable of producing a billion liters per day, opening at the end of 2013. They currently operate 32 plants in the Kingdom; one example at Shoaiba cost $1.06 billion and produces 450 million liters per day.

Corniche RO Plant (Crop) (operated by SAWACO)
Jubail 800,000 m3/day
North Obhor Plant (operated by SAWACO)
Rabigh 7,000 m3/day (operated by wetico)
planned for completion 2018 Rabigh II 600,000 m3/day (under construction Saline Water Conversion Corporation)
Shuaibah III 150,000 m3/day (operated by Doosan)
South Jeddah Corniche Plant (SOJECO) (operated by SAWACO)
Yanbu Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Saudi Arabia 68,190 m3/day

Spain

Lanzarote is the easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands. It is the driest of the islands, of volcanic origin and has limited water supplies. A private, commercial desalination plant was installed in 1964. This served the whole island and enabled the tourism industry. In 1974, the venture was injected with investments from local and municipal governments and a larger infrastructure was put in place. In 1989, the Lanzarote Island Waters Consortium (INALSA) was formed.

A prototype seawater greenhouse was constructed in Tenerife in 1992.
Alicante II 65,000 m3/day (operator Inima)
Tordera 60,000 m3/day
Barcelona 200,000 m3/day (operator Degremont) El Prat, near Barcelona, a desalination plant completed in 2009 was meant to provide water to the Barcelona metropolitan area, especially during the periodic severe droughts that put the available amounts of drinking water under serious stress.
Oropesa 50,000 m3/day (operator TECNICAS REUNIDAS)
Moncofa 60,000 m3/day (operator Inima)
Marina Baja - Mutxamel 50,000 m3/day (operator Degremont)
Torrevieja 240,000 m3/day (operator ACCIONA)
Cartagena Escombreras 63,000 m3/day (operator COBRA | TEDAGUA)
Edam Ibiza + Edam San Antonio 25,000 m3/day (operator Ibiza - Portmany)
Mazarron 36,000 m3/day (operator TEDAGUA)
Bajo Almanzora 65,000 m3/day

South Africa

Mossel Bay 15,000 m3/day
Transnet Saldanha 2,400 m3/day
Knysna 2,000 m3/day
Plettenberg Bay 2,000 m3/day
Bushman’s River Mouth 1,800 m3/day
Lambert’s Bay 1,700 m3/day
Cannon Rocks 750 m3/day

United Arab Emirates

The Jebel Ali desalination plant in Dubai, a dual-purpose facility, uses multistage flash distillation and is capable of producing 300 million cubic meters of water per year.



Kalba 15,000 m3/day built for Sharjah Electricity and Water Authority completed 2010(operator CH2MHill)
Khor Fakkan 22,500 m3/day (operator CH2MHill)
Ghalilah RAK 68,000 m3/day (operator AQUATECH)
Hamriyah 90,000 m3/day (operator AQUA Engineering)
Taweelah A1 Power and Desalination Plant has an output 385,000,000 L (85,000,000 imp gal; 102,000,000 US gal) per day of clean water.
Al Zawrah 27,000 m3/day (operator Aqua Engineering)
Layyah I 22,500 m3/day (operator CH2MHill)
Emayil & Saydiat Island ~20,000 m3/day (operator Aqua EPC)
Umm Al Nar Desalination Plant has an output of 394,000,000 L (87,000,000 imp gal; 104,000,000 US gal)/day.
Al Yasat Al Soghrih Island 2M gallons per day (GPD) or 9,000 m3/day
Fujairah F2 is to be completed by July 2010 will have a water production capacity of 492,000,000 L (108,000,000 imp gal; 130,000,000 US gal) per day.
A seawater greenhouse was constructed on Al-Aryam Island, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates in 2000.

United Kingdom

The first large-scale plant in the United Kingdom, the Thames Water Desalination Plant, was built in Beckton, east London for Thames Water by Acciona Agua.
Jersey

The desalination plant located near La Rosière, Corbiere, Jersey, is operated by Jersey Water. Built in 1970 in an abandoned quarry, it was the first in the British Isles.

The original plant used a multistage flash (MSF) distillation process, whereby seawater was boiled under vacuum, evaporated and condensed into a freshwater distillate. In 1997, the MSF plant reached the end of its operational life and was replaced with a modern reverse osmosis plant.

Its maximum power demand is 1,750 kW, and the output capacity is 6,000 cubic meters per day. Specific energy consumption is 6.8 kWh/m3.

Trinidad and Tobago

The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago uses desalination to open up more of the island's water supply for drinking purposes. The country's desalination plant, opened in March 2003, is considered to be the first of its kind. It was the largest desalination facility in the Americas, and it processes 28,800,000 US gallons (109,000 m3) of water a day at the price of $2.67 per 1,000 US gallons (3.8 m3).

This plant will be located at Trinidad's Point Lisas Industrial Estate, a park of more than 12 companies in various manufacturing and processing functions, and it will allow for easy access to water for both factories and residents in the country

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination#Existing_facilities_and_facilities_under_construction
Posted by nationalize the fed | Sun May 4, 2014, 11:47 AM (16 replies)

Desalination is not rocket science

Yeah, powered by fossil fuels

Except it doesn't have to be. California has a lot of sun.

Solar desalination

Solar desalination is a technique to desalinate water using solar energy. There are two basic methods of achieving desalination using this technique; direct and indirect. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_desalination

Australia can build renewable energy powered desalination plants- they aren't trying to drone bomb and invade multiple other countries though, so that might have something to do with it

http://www.treehugger.com/clean-water/new-australian-desalination-plant-will-use-100-renewable-energy.html


desalination plants in the past have run into problems with what to do with all the excess salt left over. Simply dumping it back into the ocean where the desalination plant operates can have very harmful effects on the local sealife for miles around.

Sea Salt is a commodity. It also has many non-dietary uses

Other countries can desalinate water and have for years.

Existing facilities and facilities under construction https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination#Existing_facilities_and_facilities_under_construction

Estimates vary widely between 15,000-20,000 desalination plants producing more than 20,000 m3/day around the world .

Algeria

Believed to have at least 15 desalination plants in operation
Arzew IWPP Power & Desalination Plant, Arzew
Cap Djinet Seawater Reverse Osmosis(SWRO) 100,000 m3/d[72]
Tlemcen Souk Tleta 200,000 m3/day
Tlemcen Hounaine 200,000 m3/day
Beni Saf 200,000 m3/day
Tenes 200,000 m3/day
Fouka 120,000 m3/day
Skikda 100,000 m3/day
Hamma Seawater Desalination Plant 200,000 m3/day built by GE
Mostaganem, once considered the largest in Africa
Magtaa Reverse Osmosis (RO) Desalination Plant, Oran, Algeria

Aruba

The island of Aruba has a large (world’s largest at the time of its inauguration) desalination plant, with a total installed capacity of 11.1e6 US gallons (42,000 m3) per day.

Australia
Main article: Seawater desalination in Australia

In Australia many desalination plants are utilizing wind farms to produce enough energy to operate nearby desalination plants. For example, the Kurnell Desalination Plant, with a capacity of producing 250 million liters (ML) of drinking water per day, supplies 15% of Sydney’s water needs via RO technology and is powered using “100 percent renewable energy” from the 140 MW Capital Wind Farm.

The Garden Island plant, currently planned for commissioning in 2014, will be powered by wave energy, using Carnegie Wave Energy's CETO system. This system uses submerged buoys to pressurise water offshore, which is piped onshore to either drive turbines for electricity generation or as in this case, to directly desalinate seawater. The Garden Island project is a commercial scale demonstration project, which follows a pilot project off the coast of Fremantle, Western Australia

List of desalination plants in Australia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_desalination_plants_in_Australia

Sydney Desalination plant- Desalination plant of the year



Gold Coast Desalination Plant 125 megalitres



Perth Seawater Desalination Plant 130 megalitres
Wonthaggi Desalination Plant 410 megalitres



7 more operating now, more planned


Bahrain

Completed in 2000, the Al Hidd Desalination Plant on Muharraq island employed a multistage flash process, and produces 272,760 m3 (9,632,000 cu ft) per day. The Al Hidd distillate forwarding station provides 410 million liters of distillate water storage in a series of 45-million-liter steel tanks. A 135-million-liters/day forwarding pumping station sends flows to the Hidd, Muharraq, Hoora, Sanabis, and Seef blending stations, and which has an option for gravity supply for low flows to blending pumps and pumps which forward to Janusan, Budiya and Saar.

Upon completion of the third construction phase, the Durrat Al Bahrain seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant was planned to have a capacity of 36,000 cubic meters of potable water per day to serve the irrigation needs of the Durrat Al Bahrain development.[81] The Bahrain-based utility company, Energy Central Co contracted to design, build and operate the plant.

Chile

Copiapó Desalination Plant

China

China operates the Beijing Desalination Plant in Tianjin, a combination desalination and coal-fired power plant designed to alleviate Tianjin's critical water shortage. Though the facility has the capacity to produce 200,000 cubic meters of potable water per day, it has never operated at more than one-quarter capacity due to difficulties with local utility companies and an inadequate local infrastructure.[84]

Cyprus

A plant operates in Cyprus near the town of Larnaca.[85] The Dhekelia Desalination Plant uses the reverse osmosis system.[86]

Egypt

Dahab RO Desalination Plants Dahab 3,600 m3/day completed 1999
Hurgada and Sharm El-Sheikh Power and Desalination Plants
Oyoun Moussa Power and Desalination
Zaafarana Power and Desalination

Gibraltar

Fresh water in Gibraltar is supplied by a number of reverse osmosis and multistage flash desalination plants.[87] A demonstration forward osmosis desalination plant also operates there.[88]

Grand Cayman

West Bay, West Bay, Grand Cayman[89]
Abel Castillo Water Works, Governor's Harbour, Grand Cayman[90]
Britannia, Seven Mile Beach, Grand Cayman[91]

Hong Kong

The HK Water Supplies Department had pilot desalination plants in Tuen Mun and Ap Lei Chau using reverse osmosis technology. The production cost was at HK$7.8 to HK$8.4 /m3.[92][93] In 2011, the government announced a feasibility study whether to build a desalination plant in Tseung Kwan O.[94] Hong Kong used to have a desalination plant in Lok On Pai.[95]

India

The largest desalination plant in South Asia is the Minjur Desalination Plant near Chennai in India, which produces 36.5 million cubic meters of water per year.



A second plant at Nemmeli, Chennai is expected to reach full capacity of 100 million litres of sea-water per day in March 2013.[98]

Iran

An assumption is that around 400,000 m3/d of historic and newly installed capacity is operational in Iran.[99] In terms of technology, Iran’s existing desalination plants use a mix of thermal processes and RO. MSF is the most widely used thermal technology although MED and vapour compression (VC) also feature.

Israel

Israel Desalination Enterprises’ Sorek Desalination Plant in Palmachim provides up to 26,000 m³ of potable water per hour (2.300 m³ p.a.). At full capacity, it is the largest desalination plant of its kind in the world. Once unthinkable, given Israels history of drought and lack of available fresh water resource, with desalination, Israel can now actually produce a surplus of fresh water

http://www.water-technology.net/projects/sorek-desalination-plant/


The Hadera seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Israel is the largest of its kind in the world.[102][103] The project was developed as a build–operate–transfer by a consortium of two Israeli companies: Shikun and Binui, and IDE Technologies.

Malta

Ghar Lapsi II 50,000 m3/day

Oman

A pilot seawater greenhouse was built in 2004 near Muscat, in collaboration with Sultan Qaboos University, providing a sustainable horticultural sector on the Batinah coast.[112]
Ghubrah Power & Desalination Plant, Muscat
Sohar Power & Desalination Plant, Sohar
Sur R.O. Desalination Plant 80,000 m3/day 2009[113]
Qarn Alam 1000 m3/day
Wilayat Diba 2000 m3/day

There are at least two forward osmosis plants operating in Oman
Al Najdah 200 m3/day (built by Modern Water)[114]
Al Khaluf[115]

Saudi Arabia

The Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia provides 50% of the municipal water in the Kingdom, operates a number of desalination plants, and has contracted $1.892 billion[116] to a Japanese-South Korean consortium to build a new facility capable of producing a billion liters per day, opening at the end of 2013. They currently operate 32 plants in the Kingdom;[117] one example at Shoaiba cost $1.06 billion and produces 450 million liters per day.[118]
Corniche RO Plant (Crop) (operated by SAWACO)
Jubail 800,000 m3/day[119]
North Obhor Plant (operated by SAWACO)
Rabigh 7,000 m3/day (operated by wetico)
planned for completion 2018 Rabigh II 600,000 m3/day (under construction Saline Water Conversion Corporation)[120]
Shuaibah III 150,000 m3/day (operated by Doosan)
South Jeddah Corniche Plant (SOJECO) (operated by SAWACO)
Yanbu Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Saudi Arabia 68,190 m3/day

Spain

Lanzarote is the easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands. It is the driest of the islands, of volcanic origin and has limited water supplies. A private, commercial desalination plant was installed in 1964. This served the whole island and enabled the tourism industry. In 1974, the venture was injected with investments from local and municipal governments and a larger infrastructure was put in place. In 1989, the Lanzarote Island Waters Consortium (INALSA)[121] was formed.

A prototype seawater greenhouse was constructed in Tenerife in 1992.[122]
Alicante II 65,000 m3/day (operator Inima)
Tordera 60,000 m3/day
Barcelona 200,000 m3/day (operator Degremont) El Prat, near Barcelona, a desalination plant completed in 2009 was meant to provide water to the Barcelona metropolitan area, especially during the periodic severe droughts that put the available amounts of drinking water under serious stress.
Oropesa 50,000 m3/day (operator TECNICAS REUNIDAS)
Moncofa 60,000 m3/day (operator Inima)
Marina Baja - Mutxamel 50,000 m3/day (operator Degremont)
Torrevieja 240,000 m3/day (operator ACCIONA)
Cartagena Escombreras 63,000 m3/day (operator COBRA | TEDAGUA)
Edam Ibiza + Edam San Antonio 25,000 m3/day (operator Ibiza - Portmany)
Mazarron 36,000 m3/day (operator TEDAGUA)
Bajo Almanzora 65,000 m3/day


South Africa

Mossel Bay 15,000 m3/day[123]
Transnet Saldanha 2,400 m3/day[124]
Knysna 2,000 m3/day[125]
Plettenberg Bay 2,000 m3/day[126]
Bushman’s River Mouth 1,800 m3/day[127]
Lambert’s Bay 1,700 m3/day[128]
Cannon Rocks 750 m3/day[129]

United Arab Emirates

The Jebel Ali desalination plant in Dubai, a dual-purpose facility, uses multistage flash distillation and is capable of producing 300 million cubic meters of water per year.

Kalba 15,000 m3/day built for Sharjah Electricity and Water Authority completed 2010(operator CH2MHill)
Khor Fakkan 22,500 m3/day (operator CH2MHill)
Ghalilah RAK 68,000 m3/day (operator AQUATECH)
Hamriyah 90,000 m3/day (operator AQUA Engineering)
Taweelah A1 Power and Desalination Plant has an output 385,000,000 L (85,000,000 imp gal; 102,000,000 US gal) per day of clean water.
Al Zawrah 27,000 m3/day (operator Aqua Engineering)
Layyah I 22,500 m3/day (operator CH2MHill)
Emayil & Saydiat Island ~20,000 m3/day (operator Aqua EPC)
Umm Al Nar Desalination Plant has an output of 394,000,000 L (87,000,000 imp gal; 104,000,000 US gal)/day.
Al Yasat Al Soghrih Island 2M gallons per day (GPD) or 9,000 m3/day
Fujairah F2 is to be completed by July 2010 will have a water production capacity of 492,000,000 L (108,000,000 imp gal; 130,000,000 US gal) per day.
A seawater greenhouse was constructed on Al-Aryam Island, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates in 2000.

United Kingdom

The first large-scale plant in the United Kingdom, the Thames Water Desalination Plant, was built in Beckton, east London for Thames Water by Acciona Agua.
Jersey[edit]

The desalination plant located near La Rosière, Corbiere, Jersey, is operated by Jersey Water. Built in 1970 in an abandoned quarry, it was the first in the British Isles.

The original plant used a multistage flash (MSF) distillation process, whereby seawater was boiled under vacuum, evaporated and condensed into a freshwater distillate. In 1997, the MSF plant reached the end of its operational life and was replaced with a modern reverse osmosis plant.

Its maximum power demand is 1,750 kW, and the output capacity is 6,000 cubic meters per day. Specific energy consumption is 6.8 kWh/m3.[133]

Trinidad and Tobago

The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago uses desalination to open up more of the island's water supply for drinking purposes. The country's desalination plant, opened in March 2003, is considered to be the first of its kind. It was the largest desalination facility in the Americas, and it processes 28,800,000 US gallons (109,000 m3) of water a day at the price of $2.67 per 1,000 US gallons (3.8 m3).

This plant will be located at Trinidad's Point Lisas Industrial Estate, a park of more than 12 companies in various manufacturing and processing functions, and it will allow for easy access to water for both factories and residents in the country
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination#Existing_facilities_and_facilities_under_construction


America has become the Can't Do nation, unless we're talking about wiretapping the rest of the world or drone bombing children in Yemen
Posted by nationalize the fed | Sun May 4, 2014, 11:09 AM (0 replies)
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